Peter Sloterdijk on Foams


(Eduardo Rocha) #1

Hello guys. I spent these four days reading the beginning of Foams. If you have something to share from texts, papers, interviews or even making notes, participating or giving opinions would be critical. I chose to make the text flow. To speak topic by topic would take a lot. So basically, I will highlight what most caught my attention in Foams.

In the Spanish version the initial part consists of an initial note (page 15-26) in which Sloterdijk basically talks about the end of Globes for a pluralistic spherology and the prologue called “The Birth of Foam” (page 27-71). The initial part made me very intrigued. Foams left me a bit with the feeling of reading bubbles that when turning a page anything can appear. The form and the text of Sloterdijk of the other two books continues and at least at that beginning shows up even more direct. The beginning of Foams basically speaks of the fact that Foams are local to a finding that froth is equal to fertility a place of humans and gods. A place of Foams, bubbles and air. In “Foams,” volume three of the trilogy, we have the little balls, the foams, which form what appears to be thick, but highly volatile. We are in the “Foam Architecture”. Behold, we are in the present world, built by an “inside” of thin walls. The spheres here are in constant catastrophes bursting into implosions. The virtual sphere, for example, is an inside that makes all of us seemingly familiar, while it smashes the spheres we used to call intimate. Sloterdijk shows how the totalizing sphere form is lost, and what happens is small cells, which may even have some spherical shape, but several others, hexagonal, and so on. “Spatial pluralism and the multiplicity of centers of power are seminal to existence (dasein-the being-there) in the” foams. " The set of these cells are the foams. They are more concentrated in certain places on the foam carpet and are less concentrated in others. Modern and postmodern society is not really a mass society, as is often said in works of Sociology or Philosophy, which would involve spaces without breathing, but a society of foams, where breathing, acclimatization, air conditioning and, in short, the thin walls, characterize the architecture of the great urban conglomerates. The early atmotechnics without which the modern form of existence would be unthinkable. We have installation of heating and ventilation in homes and buildings, artificial regulation of temperature and humidity of the air in offices, rooms, the placement of refrigerators and refrigerators, cold rooms, food preservation modes, including, vacuum, growing aseptic policy and hygiene of factories, mines, surgeries and a kind of aromatic technical modification of the atmosphere. There is a transit to the air design. That was the response of contemporaries. A technical response to an idea of ​​delayed phenomenology that the being-in-the-world is always presented with a modification of being-in-the-air. The sum of these immune systems are foams, within the foam there are microspherology, bubbles and macroespherology, globes. Foams that have a sense of fragility and lightness, but also that there are stable foams, we could think of cities as stable foams. Earth united with air produces stable and dry foam, like lava stone in glass with bubbles. Phenomenon that only considers like foam in the modern time, after the introductions of tubes of certain hard and elastic materials becomes an industrial routine. On the contrary, water bound together with air produces fluid, moist and ephemeral foam, like sea waves and those rising in fermenting vats. This union between gases and liquids form the constitutive model of the current concept of foams. Let’s just say things have lost their “solidity.” Matter begins to foam. Following Aristotle, including male ejaculation, such as erection, is a pneumatic effect. Again, therefore, we have air in an unexpected place because there is expulsion from the sperm. This also happens because the air is pushed. Sloterdijk still wonders if melancholia is the uniting bond between anthropology and the theory of foams? Modernity consequently brings interpretations of dreams according to an “interpretation of foams,” a phrase Sloterdijk takes from Hans-Jürgen Heinrichs in the book The Sun and Death. Here he says that this would be a task to lend to the air an “unexpected place”. The attention that is due to it, the risks that with it also arise theories in unexpected places, post-heroic theory that deals with the ephemeral, irrelevant and secondary. What, on the other hand, the heroic theory posited as substantial, primary, and eternal. For the German, the foam is a finding that foam equals fertility, at best a poetic plausibility. Nevertheless, they prepare from afar a concept of agenesis that encourages us not only to ask for the generations of Gods, but also for the emergence of the human being from the aerial, floating, merged and inspired. This is a realization that the foam in one sense of the word is the matrix of all human events.
Sloterdijk speaks nothing but the modern catastrophe of the round world. He describes in morphological terms the coming of an era in which the shape of the whole can no longer be represented by imperial and pan-optical circular panoramas. From a modern perspective, modernity appears first and foremost as a “revolution of form”. An interpretation of Foams as a nickname of “poliesferology” or an enlarged science of greenhouses. It is not without reason that to this day it is deplored by conservative critics as loss of the center and condemned as a revolt against the circle of God. Catholics in old Europe saw the essence of modern times through the eyes of a spherical attack. Spherology aims at making available the means to characterize the catastrophes of the form of the world of modernity, that is, both terrestrial and virtual globalization in what concerns the construction of non-round spheres. This situation in the world through global markets and media is waging a world war of life forms and information products. We have, then, the view that everything has become center and for that very reason, there is no longer any valid center. Everything transmits, and the supposed central transmitter is lost in the commotion of messages. This, among others, is the reason why the maximum, unitary and perfect circle is finished. Hence comes Sloterdijk’s idea that the morphological model of the polyspherical world we are inhabiting is no longer the ball, but the foam. A technological theory of humanly inhabited spaces, symbolically air-conditioned, is to say: an apparatus of engineering-scientific and political for the construction and maintenance of civilizational units.

The Foams offer a theory of the present epoch from the point of view that "life" unfolds (develops) multifocal, multiperspectivist, and heterarchically. Its starting point lies in a non-metaphysical and non-holistic definition of life: its immunization can no longer be thought of with the means of ontological simplification, of recapitulation in the whole-sphere. If "life" acts unlimitedly, shaping spaces in various ways, it is not only because each of the monads has its own outline, but because all are reunited with other lives and are composed of innumerable units. Life is articulated in simultaneous scenarios, interwoven with one another, produced and consumed in interconnected workshops.

But the decisive for all: it always produces the space in which it is and that is in it. A vision similar to Bruno Latour who had already spoken of a "parliament of things". Sloterdijk with the help of the foam metaphor, intends to make occupation of a republic of spaces. Sloterdijk takes up works of Esposito as Immunitas. Biosophy has just begun its work and atmospheric theory has just been provisionally consolidated. The general theory of immune systems and community systems is in its infancy. We are faced with a theory of places, situations, and immersions that is slowly moving towards a new constitution of a global society that for us only appears an outline. If in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries we had a nihilistic phatos by the sinking of the monological metaphysics of the sphere, if God died, we could reformulate that sentence for "sphere one has been imploded, now the living foams." Understanding the monopolization mechanisms by means of simplifying and totalizing imperial globes does not provide a reason to ruin everything that was considered grand and valuable. "It is openly advertised in the 21st century as the century of the foam (SLOTERDIJK, 2006: 45).

The current network-wide connection of the entire planet with all its ramifications and diversity of the virtual domain represents from the structural point of view not specifically a “globalization” but a foaming. In “foam-worlds”, isolated bubbles are not allowed in a single integrating hyperbola. What happens exactly with the metaphysical conceptions of the world, therefore, they pile up in irregular piles and with multiplicity of forms. With a phenomenology of foams, we are given an image in conceptual and imaginary way towards the direction of a political amorphology that explores even the unfamiliarity of the metamorphoses and paradigms of the space of solidarity in an age of multiple media and volatile world markets. Sloterdijk mentions the Belgian physicist Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau who in the mid-nineteenth century formulated the fundamental laws of geometrization of foams. Laws that point to a minimum order in the apparent chaos of clusters of bubbles-frothy (frothy). With their help, the foams could be described as strained sculptures of película tegumentos. The angles of a bubble of foam, or rather of a polygon of foam, are exactly formed by three pelicular partitions and that two to two of these three partitions are always at a 120-degree angle and always converge at a point that is exactly four angles of foam cells. It is important to note that in the foams there is no cell as a central point and that the idea of ​​a capital would be counterproductive. The reason for the multiplicity of chambers was also originated by physical theories. Therefore, the description of conformations of spontaneous spaces, from the minimum dimensions as in the mesocosmic phenomena, even in processes of galactic and actually cosmic dimensions, is used more and more for the foam metaphor. No other science sees so much the potency of foaming morphology as cellular biology. From the point of life’s emergence, for some biologists, what is meant by life can only be explained by spontaneous formations of foams in the murky water of the primitive ocean.


(Eduardo Rocha) #2

Sloterdijk (2006, pp. 45-46):

In this account of cellular genesis the round shape and the energetic content had to act in each other in such a way that they made it possible for the first living being to emerge from the sea, the foam-born monad, swimming in water and dissolved in it, but already demarcated in it , filled by an interior, of something of its own. From the original molecular broth, originating interiors, formally protected, which are considered precursors of life, have embarked on the path of self-inclusion. In the way they speak of systemic biology, they constitute "semi-open systems", which they process as sensory reaction spaces with themselves and with the environment. The oldest fossils that have been found so far on Earth, more than three thousand five hundred million years, paleontologists interpret them as remains of native bacteria; by their form and place of encounter are called microspheres-Zwazilandia. His existence demonstrates that the mystery of life can not be separated from the mystery of form, but rather from the conformation of inner space under spherical laws. When the unicellular ones appear the history of the organic like condensation and spherical encapsulation begins: underneath membranes in form of globe they concentrate the more that will be called life. In the primitive organism, space is on its way to the self. The first characteristic of the self is the ability to adopt a position as opposed to the outside. The position appears, by what we see, by folding upon itself, or by a stubbornness to remain in an unexpected place. Already in the most primitive life had to lead the mysterious path inside?

It is worth noting the striking connection between the morphology of the foam and the primitive zoogenesis and the light of new life sciences. For us, the adventure of multiplicity and space begins only with anthropological and theoretical-cultural contexts. Under the description "Foam" Sloterdijk means an agglomeration of bubbles with the sense of the microscopic analysis already done. The expression applies to systems or aggregates of spherical houses in which each of them (the cells) constitutes a context as a world and a self-fulfilling place, an intimate space-sense that has managed to open a path in itself tensed by dyadic or multi-polar resonances or a "house" that stirs in its own animation. If this is true, it is only possible to see the foam as an experimentation for it and in itself. Each of these neighborhoods, couples, places, symbioses and alliances is a greenhouse of sui generis relations. We could qualify such conformations as a "two-fold partnership." Although at the end of this book we will see that Sloterdijk has a certain dejection with the word "society", because according to him, the term more disorient than it helps when it comes to this study.

Only by understanding the world as amorphous and non-round is it possible to investigate the moment in which we are of the present destruction and reconstructions of Spheres. A set of small bubbles form a foam with several types of layers. Together cells that are foaming because they share the same wall are the buildings in the cities, in architectural terms, and in terms of the synthetic maintenance of modern society. This topology makes every being an island, these are the typical meeting places: seminars, assemblies, congresses, stadiums or even the chair already defined and individualized in the cinema. In addition, they penetrate the forms of communications and their networks that follow this format before foaming that of “networks” themselves. In other words, foams form groups, corporations, parties, clubs, associations, among others. What matters here is that what was individual remains individualized, although there is a minimum sharing of “dividing walls.” In the cellular scope, the common among cells in the tissue are the walls (malleable membranes). So does our modern architectural design with cities as sets of foam waves. Moderns have a porous density. Foams, piles, sponges, clouds, swirls are the first metaphors of the twentieth century. Amorphous metaphors that will help us understand people’s current view of the environment, ecology, ecosystems, and design. To pursue this language is to ask questions about inner-world formations, creations of dependency nexus, and immune architecture in an era in which we have a technical unleash of complexity of forms.

When such places are formed, the existence-one-to-one of the associates in the vicinity acts in each case as the authentic agent of the conformation of space. The climatization of the coexistential interior space is produced by the reciprocal extroversion of the symbionts that temper the common interior like a stove before the fire. Each of the microspheres is itself an axis of what is intimate. In the case, Sloterdijk speaks of “human foams” or “social foams”. The foam controls the principle of co-isolation. According to which one and the same separation wall serves as the boundary in each case for two or more spheres. Such walls take hold on both sides and are the native interfaces. Having said this, that in the physically real foam is a concrete limit bubble with a plurality of neighboring globes condition it in a breakdown of space we can deduce that a prototypical image for interpretations of social order and human associations. In the human field of concrete cells there is agglutination with each other by immunization, separation and reciprocal isolation. The peculiarity of this region of objects is the fact that the multiple co-isolation of the bubble houses in their different neighborhoods can be described as closure and as an opening to the world. Therefore, the foam constitutes an interior for paradoxically, in which most of the surrounding co-bubbles are at the same time of my location, neighbors and inaccessible and in turn, are joined and separated. For spherology, society is a spatial description of foam in the sense of the word just mentioned. Societies are only fully knowable as agitated and asymmetric associations of multiplicity of spaces and multiplicity of processes, whose cells can not really be united or separated. They are monospheres united from the origin only as they hypnotize themselves by estimating themselves as homogeneous unity, something like national peoples, genetically and theologically substantial. They are enchanted spaces that enjoy imaginary immunity and a community of magically widespread essence and election. When we speak of “society” with the already defined expression, we should not to imagine a “violent nationalism,” a mono-spherical receptacle that can be placed within a population of many individuals and families under an essential political name, a first constitutive phantasy, or a non-spatial communication process that diversifies into subsystems and "solidarity organic “of Dukheim since” the whole "of foams is amorphological. As Nietzsche had already said, “man is a flock.” In small groups people can reach totally different ways of living together (biological or evolutionary projects), which tells us that we are herd animals. Working well with one hundred, two hundred people. Everything that exceeds this must be seen with a tone of symbolism and abstraction. When you realize that it is not possible to turn the world into a circle of friends. This is the lesson of those who learn the first matter of Socialism. And it can then handle the telecommunication elements necessary for human survival in a fundamental sense: we can not put much faith in our reflections of small groups. We should assume that this other fairy tale. The political fairy tale of making the world a community and thinking humanity as a circle of friends and family is a perilous illusion that confuses us with our transcendental elements and can lead us to create false idols, false symbols such as the notion of nation, an identity that from afar seems a community represented by a people, territory, flag and images, but it is not. Because it is only through monumental and emotional error that people can generate family feelings for fifty or a hundred million people.


(Eduardo Rocha) #3


In the formation of plant embryos, the thickness of the cell walls is an indication of age


A biological coenobio with affiliated colonies: Volvox alga as an evolutionary example of the transition from unicellular colonies in formation to the multicellular, globular and sexually differentiated individual.

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Honey. Michael Boran.

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United and separated bubbles.

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Six-sided Hive Format.


(Douglas Duff) #4

Very useful @Eduardo_Rocha…and, as always, very thorough. I too began Foams at the beginning of the month, as I had two weeks away from work. Hoping that I can contribute something, though you have covered most boundaries of the foaminess here.

Yes, this introductory “Note” and prologue both affirm our pre-formed, pre-imagined foam metaphors and opens the floodgate, releasing foams in all directions. Sloterdijk has sensed the rhythm that our reading group prefers, that Globes needed (through the division of the text into their own foam-like excurses) "I will make use of the foam metaphor to examine a republic of spaces. (Foams, p. 23 in 2016 English translation). “…where losses of form were bemoaned, gains in mobility are now in evidence” (25). The exaggerated foam metaphors take on many forms as Sloterdijk performs his alchemical mixings and musings. “Air, the misunderstood element, finds ways and means of advancing to places where no one reckons with its presence; and, more significantly, it makes space on its own strength for strange plaves where there were previously none” (28). Earth + Air = volcanic rock, cellular glass; Water + Air = sea spray, scum. Air + Bursting = Almost Nothing, Almost Not; Disappointment… “Aphrology—from the Greek aphros, “foam” —is the theory of co-fragile systems” (37) Yet, too…anything can appear…like the human/being, defined by meta-morphology (change) and space temporality (brevity). Merrily, merrily; life is but foam…

How far outside the self can we reside? There are many foam-windows lodged in the shared dividing walls, but there are no doors. We navel gaze at our long-distant, missing-but-present placenta buddy and send an imagined connective gaze through our shared windows, radiant rays, an SOS (societies over selves, save our solidarity, seek out other selves). If we reach out to the other, the shared wall is displaced and the space becomes one of shared space with no turning back. Memory cannot be erased. The implicit has been made explicit.


In an attempt to forsee our future Foams discussions, the theme of the implicit made explicit through “revolution, rotation and invasion,” seep from the Prologue and into the Introduction. This repetition is also a central theme in You Must Change Your Life (which, takes some of the ideas fleshed out in Foams as a given. This one is highly recommended and a surprisingly explicit piece of work…I was a both thankful and disappointed that he provides direct definitions and shares his intentions and conclusions within each chapter).

“If the pleating of what is implicitly or darkly cognized by the soul extends to infinity, there is no prospect of attaining completely explicit knowledge…the human intellect is granted progress in its awareness of increasing, yet always insufficient explicitness” (Foams, 835, note 54).

“Always insufficient explicitness”
—This phrase could be repeated as the 20th and 21st centuries’ mantra.


(Geoffrey Edwards) #5

Very useful, both of you. @Eduardo_Rocha, you make this Sloterdijk sound more interesting than the others, I almost regret setting it aside! I can see I will have to take it up again! Although I might prefer reading “Eduardo reading Sloterdijk” than reading the man himself!


(Eduardo Rocha) #6

We must understand by “society” an aggregate of microspheres (home pairs, companies, associations) of different formats (polyhedral), like the bubbles isolated in a lot of foam, limit with each other, stack one on and underneath others, they pile up around each other without being really accessible to one another, or effectively separable from each other. Bubbles in the foam, that is, couples and households, survival teams and supervenience communities are self-referenced micro-continents. No matter how much they pretend to be united with each other and with the outside, in principle they are only caught up in each case in themselves. The symbiote units (The Spider-man villain Venom is described as a symbiont. An organism that ends up connecting with a human, let’s say an intimate association with sharing things) are shaping a world always in and of itself with groups modelers of worlds who do the same in their own way and those who are constrained by the principle of co-isolation, forming an interactive montage. Their mutual similarities allow one to draw a conclusion that they are only reciprocally in intense communication and widely open to each other, but in reality, most of these similarities to one another are simply a genesis in common waves of imitation. Sloterdijk uses a very significant image here. He says we should imagine in vehicle occupants traveling in lines one behind the other on the avenues. Each group of travelers conforms within a resonant cell, but between the vehicles reigns the isolation and well are well, since the communication between these groups would mean collision. Communication or attunement between them is not produced by a direct exchange or personal exchange between cells, but by the mimetic infiltration of norms, stimuli, media, contagious goods and similar symbols. What we see in the media today when talking about “globalization” is nothing more than morphologically speaking a universal war of foams. They are developed human foams. Given this scenario, Sloterdijk talks about pathologies of the spheres in the postmodern process raised a triple issue.
Sloterdijk (2016, p. 68):

The first is the domain of political science, inasmuch as foams are, tendentially, ungovernable structures that hang for morphological anarchy. The second is cognitive, inasmuch as associated subjects and individuals living in the foams can no longer form a whole world, since the very idea of ​​the whole world, with its typically holistic accentuation, obviously belongs to the depleted age of the monospheres or metaphysical circles of total inclusion. The third, finally, is psychological, since the tendency of isolated individuals in foams is to lose the force to form psychic spaces and atrophy in isolated depressive points, which dispose in an arbitrary wheel (correctly denominated in systemic terms, the environment); such individuals suffer from this immune deficiency triggered by the annihilation of solidarities - not to mention, for the time being, new immunizations through participation in the creations of regenerated spheres. For private persons, spheroid, their life span becomes a self-inflicted incommunicability; their sizeless egos, the shortsighted in acts, poor in participation, stare through the media window at the images of animated landscapes. For acute mass cultures, it is typical for animated images to become much more vivid than most observers: repetition of animism at the pinnacle of modernity.

From each of the places in the foam open perspectives to the adjacent, but there is no provision for general panoramic views, in the most ambitious case within a bubble formulate hyperboles, which are useful in numerous neighboring bubbles. Selectively it is possible to transmit messages and news, but there are no outputs altogether. For Sloterdijk’s spherology, especially in foams, which accepts being-in-the-foam as a primary determination of the situation, supervisions that reach the conclusion of the one world are completely inaccessible and perhaps impossible and undesirable. As already mentioned, if we speak of foams we must abandon classical metaphysics with the idea of ​​central, totalizing and omni-intelligible monospheres. The best view would be as asymmetric neighborhood systems between greenhouses of intimacy and worlds of generally average size, the foams are transparent and opaque media. The foam situation is a relative mount of sight around and blindness. All Dasein (being-there or being-in-the-world) understood as being-in-the-foam opens a clear in the impenetrable. Plural spherology has taken provisional account of modern biology by the notion of the concept of “environment”. I believe it was a mistake to believe that the human world would provide a common platform for all living things. Every living being has a special platform, it is specific to you and is as real as the special platform of humans. By this recognition we get a new view of the universe. It does not consist of a single soap bubble, which we had inflated and blown up on our horizon to infinity, but millions and millions of closely bounded soap bubbles that intersect and interfere with each other. If we think of animals, each one has a habitat with its surroundings. The spider with its nest of webs, ants with their nest, birds make their nest with sticks and leaves and men in bubble-balls. In the place of the super-bubble of philosophical soap, of the world-one, whose forms we saw in Spheres II - Globes, above all, appears a polycosmic agglomeration, which can be described as grouping of groups, as semi-opaque foams composed of spatial structures shapers of worlds. It is important to realize that this unlimited multiplicity of sensible modes of existence in meaningful structured environments is already at the level of animal intelligence, and as far as we know there is no animal that has an inventory of all other animals and themselves. Man is perhaps the closest to this with the ontological foams.

The detailed wholes (or limits of my world) that we cannot abandon are called “environments” or “environments.” They are a designation of origin of biology I believe. Heidegger himself mentions that plants and animals are immersed in their own environments (earth, roots, water), are surrounded by a spatiality that forms them, “but they are never freely inserted in the clearing of being - and only this clearing is” world '- so they lack language. Let the inversion be attentive: the man is called by the being to shepherd him. “It is the being who employs men as guardians,” says Sloterdijk. And then he adds: “the place where this employment is valid is the clearing (Lichtung), or the place where the being appears as that which is.” Being is what it is. It’s not this or that. It is not the entity. Being is what it is, and thus appears in the clearing, which, being that of being-there, is Dasein itself. This, Dasein, “can be found where there is an interruption in the opacity of nature, where there is a passage to the open sky above, making observation possible”; is “where there is light sufficient for the” Dasein "to notice its very existence [1]. It is not because they lack language that they are without world. Language is not an expression of being alive. Language is “enlightening advent-watcher of being”. It watches the being, enlightens it. “The clearing itself is the being.” Clearing is being, it is the world and the language that veils being, enlightens it, is the “house of being”. When Sloterdijk says that the light is being produced (in the launching of the stone which is analogous to language), he is saying that the being is being produced, the world, because in producing language is producing the house of being [2]. If the transition from a “natural” Umwelt (environment) to a technical one involves going out into the open and consequently a new isolation (or “insulation”), it is necessary to think about the process in which prehumans, that is, those who are not yet human (“animals”), but who implied and were gradually involved in the process of human construction, created walls and barriers, lying against the outside. Needless to say, such an “openness” is itself the very passage between the two forms of conformation, “natural” and technical, hybrid. Along with this, the technical means also change progressively, in the sense of a departure from the physiological dependence of Umwelt by means of instruments. Physiology, therefore, is gradually altered and refined in order to meet the adaptive demands of the greenhouse. However, in the instability inherent in the interior space, which is in conflict with the outside and at the same time, that is under the risk of losing the internal organization, there is always the possibility of breaking and implosion of the greenhouse.

This is probably due to the "transference" of which Sloterdijk speaks at the beginning of Spheres I: Bubbles. What we consider life is always a life in the surroundings and this environment is also against an environment and in opposition to many strange environments. Sloterdijk will talk about how foams somehow create a space topology. We must take into account spheropoeitic processes that are formed under inhabited spaces, buildings and other forms of architectural agglomeration. A view that follows the idea of ​​building with a soap bubble. The soap bubble is perfectly harmonious when and is well distributed as well as regulated from within. The exterior is the result of an interior. In this turning to lightness, the explicit manifests itself with a modern function of science and culture. It presents itself as the agent of civilizing explanations in general.

Cultures will be filling bubble spheres with air that creates tension (which will be hierarchical as sages x ordinary, shepherd x sheep, general x soldier, sacred x profane, king x subjects, even the first chiefs, chiefs, shamans or men know more than others) among those who share this geometry of space. In regard to it, it must be remembered that from now on it will always be also a science of technique and administrative practice for the work of cultural greenhouses. After cultures, exactly, they no longer seem to be installed, we must to worry about their permanence and their regeneration by cultivating, rewriting, filtering, explaining, reforming. The culture of all cultures will become the criterion of civilization. After the Bubbles and Globes, the being-in-the-world was described by relations of construction and projection of media technologists, interior architects, doctors, atmospheric drawings. What is meant by spatiality, the atmospheres and the surrounding situations in which we hold our own plans, valuations and needy, comes into play, constructive and reconstructive activities. One view that could ease here is a child’s Playground, but those filled with air made of foam or like balloons. If they come back, it is because the objects worthy of conservation are products of explanation. They will be nothing more than a kind of vigilance and a constant and fundamental socio-political concern. We have the new technical drawing. What was the “world of life” has now become a climatic technique. Air in unexpected places.

Nietzsche speaks of the body as a plural field of living beings, with diverse “wants”. This “biology” of Nietzsche resorts to facts known here and there by current scholars about the intestinal flora, but also of how our whole body is the place of thousands of bacteria, if living things that are vital for us, that decide much of what we do, representing more than 80% of the cells we carry. If we think that several of these beings are responsible for what we can or cannot do in controlling the absorption of serotonin, which is our regulator of happiness, then really the issues of a plural cellular will. In fact, we must consider that we are an ecosystem, a field of exchanges and symbioses, something made before the adamitic clay that of the belief of an individual, autonomous, enlightened I, forged by the liberalism and endorsed by Descartes and Kant philosophically. In fact, if we begin to think of the body from these dispositions, we will certainly understand Sloterdijk’s notions of resonance, which distances us from the dichotomy of culture and nature, a dichotomy that more disturbs us than helps our understanding of ourselves. Even after all postmodern warning about the flaws of the subject’s philosophy, we are still skating in this traditional philosophy, sometimes speaking no more like Descartes, but still speaking as Habermas, in linguistic intersubjectivity and the like. We may have to take seriously the idea that the body is a resonance field or “the body is a place” according to Foucault in “The Utopian Body” [3] a system of floodgates that can sometimes citadel of thin walls, porous, with aspects of Russian dolls some embedded in the others, but in a surreal way, in which the bigger one fits in the smaller one. Beginning this way, we may be able to take greater steps toward Nietzsche’s distrust of the idea that we own our noses beyond the tastes of our noses. To finish. Since the college we learned that mitochondria were, in the past, animals with a life of their own that, one day, ended up being incorporated by the system in today they are, as mere organs.
Sloterdijk’s description functions as a kind of “cell wall” where the various types of mechanisms can be allowed to flow, a resistant wall without being a kind of barrier, but at the same time flexible, as if they were “microfibrils” allowing that a cell can grow. Active membranes are walls. But not any walls. A bubble cannot be certain to be rigid. It cannot be a chamber in a kind of enclosure. The problem with the Berlin Wall was that it was not a membrane, like the modern walls. He was made of stone and ideology. Membranes can be of various materials, less ideological. Membranes must be pragmatic. In these notes the “society” appears as interconnected carpet. And its most important dimension is its capacity for lateral spatial extension. “Societies” are composed of beings that are inside and outside their association. Of great help this “monadological twist” helped them to dethrone the illusion of classical individualism when referring to the members of “bourgeois societies” so that from now on we can only think of “societies” as a reunion meeting or as composition of compositions, but we must take advantage of this and take a “diadological turn”. A form whose content gives them coexistence of two in strong interactions. Multiplicity of dyads, whose elementary units do not constitute individuals, but couples, symbiotic molecules, homes, communities of resonance as it was already spoken basically throughout the Spheres-I: Bubbles. We have seen that what is called Bubble is a place that is done by “strong relationships”, that yes is the answer to the coexistence. A place whose characteristic is that human beings in a close space create a psychic relationship of reciprocal interactions in a kind of “autogenous receptacles”. Therefore, the multiplicity of these spaces (self-receptacles) leads us to the foams.

If we see the reproductive system both male and female (2 testes and 2 ovary), we will have the predominance of the spherical double almost as if the woman specifically, put an egg in itself. Among insects, reptiles, fish, and birds - that is, among the great variety of species - the fertilized egg, the carrier of genetic information, is placed in an outer environment that vaguely possesses the properties of an external uterus or nest. Now, something very incredible happens in the evolutionary line that leads to mammals: the female body of the species is defined as an ecological niche for their offspring. This leads to a dramatic internal shift in evolution. What we see is a dual use of females of a species. From now on they are not just egg systems, but femininity means the successful phase of an ovulation system. They lay eggs within themselves and make their own body available as an ecological niche (an evolutionary adaptation of mammals) to their offspring. In this way, they become integrated animal mothers and birth to be a sort of expected event. The uterus as a nest and shelter. And the placenta as the shell of this "egg". We could imagine the metaphor of the Spheres for the process of formation of the fetus as "the bubble boiling in the foam." We see in eggs of reptiles or birds a very thin membrane that covers its interior a more evolved system in mammals is seen when a larger and more malleable membrane is constituted around the fetus.

And not infrequently, the Eucharist is an example of this covenant. Bread and wine transubstantiate, respectively, in the body and blood of Christ. If we look at John 6:54, "He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath everlasting life, and I will raise him up at the last day" and John 58: "This is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not the case of your fathers, who ate the manna and died; whoever eats this bread will live forever. Have we still baptized in water and interweaving feasts by means of common drink as a source of life - a second life? Without water to sow the land there is no fruit. Sloterdijk talks a lot about how the placenta is buried [4], suspended in the air, burned or immersed in liquids. Later this intimate liquid medium will lead modern men to talk on the phone, use the internet, and be in continuous communication. From the beginning, says Sloterdijk, "the history of self is first and foremost a history of self-transport." We also see in primitive warrior cultures that drank blood from their defeated and dead enemies, our Indians in the habit of eating placenta, some mammals after parir eating their own placenta, more recently in contemporary society, we see pills made of placenta and people themselves. feeding placenta. In some places there is a gastronomy appearing in this direction. Is it possible to think of a modern world, a new alliance with an ontology of the two? Will people be awakening from your womb? It seems that all renewal and transformation is always done in an interior. As in our first home or in yourself eating the wafer which is the body of Christ. This particular liquid seems to awaken and have a transformative capacity. We are talking about this having to do with a penetrate-penetrated theory, with an ethics of overflowing and insertion into others, with a logic of absorption and remission. The metaphors of interpenetration, passing through the bowels and being pregnant and engrossing are enough to avoid thinking of the model of a single, solitary individual or of an individual in the context of an intersubjective interaction or event. The main character in the first book is Jonas and the Jonas complex. Jonah 1:17 And the Lord prepared a great fish to swallow Jonah. and Jonah was three days and three nights in the bowels of the fish, John 6:54 "He that eateth my flesh and drinketh my blood hath everlasting life, and I will raise him up at the last day" and Matthew 12:40 "For as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the whale, so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the bosom of the earth. " It is someone who has been swallowed and who, when leaving, will stop fleeing and assume his job, but it is also someone who, coming from the bowels of the whale, spent three days in a kind of dark interior and having been re-involved in a type of amniotic fluid, crossed by nutrients of various kinds of the whale itself leaves there modified. Something "magical" happened. All that the new amniotic fluid did was put the sap and the gastric juice of another into the guest. What the guest had there was the liquid to be drunk, the cream to become a smear and the ingredients that made his pores [5] make up a body while a thin sieve inside the whale. Jonas should try a type of soup contained in various ingredients and seasonings. After three days, he left to become what he is, the new prophet, to accept the mission that God had given him. Jonas should be bold and confident. Then he began to pray to God, beginning the process of taking his destiny. God took his call and made the whale spit it out. Once out of this interior, Jonah understood everything and assumed the mission of preacher and prophet. An explanation here is needed. Tales of Miletus had spoken: "all is water" (an arkhé, a principle of everything).

Everything becomes more translucent, when the ontological narrative developed here begins in the intimate sphere, in microspherology. The spheres are small forms or a system of self-production capable of creating a type of immunological waterproofing of the men before the exterior that reaches them and during this self-production man leaves his condition of animal for a process of hominization, a transport. An anthropogenesis by means of an anthropothermic transference. The bubble is also a small sphere in psycho-acoustic resonance or resonance space capable of learning and reproducing by the learning whose individual appears as the pole of resonance of collective relations. The man for Sloterdijk is a clandestine architect of interior spaces to be able to exist. This is because man is a builder of homes, of something like "the inside", and in it cohabits and coexists. To speak of spheres is therefore not simply to develop a "theory of symbiotic intimacy" and dual surrealism, but the theory of spheres begins as a psychology of the construction of inner space starting from biunivocal correspondences, but it extends to a "general theory of autogenous vessels ". It is this theory that provides all the abstract forms of immunology. Under the sign of Spheres, the question finally arises as to the form of the political creations of space in the world. For Sloterdijk, spherical psychology comes before the politics of the Spheres. The philosophy of intimacy must ground political topological morphology. This sequence is so because each life traverses in its beginning a phase in which a soft dementia to two fills the world. Ecstatic care mixes mother and child in a vial of closeness and love, whose echoes prove effective in all circumstances for a happy life. From this two quickly comes a third, a four. With the exit of individualizing life out of its original envelope, the supplementary poles and spatial configurations arise, which determine, at each step, an increasing range of care and participation until adulthood.

Spherology is thought from the outset with processes of transpositions of the microspheres into the macrospheres. But what it expresses initially is the departure of the living from the mother’s lap be they real or virtual. And from there to the dense cosmos of the developed regional civilizations and, beyond them, the non-round and non-dense foam worlds of modern global culture. Spheres are forms as forces of destiny. Starting from the fetal murmur in its private dark waters, to the cosmic-imperial globe. By doing so we find (at least as I read it) an anticipatory thinking of definite contours for the century which we are finding prevented from the uncertainty about the solidarity of its fellow men because its victory can only happen in the face of the defeat of others. Being in the world is much more decisive and speaks much more about ourselves than any existentialist question can do. The “Dasein”, the subject, ontologically speaking is spatial, because when one speaks of “being-there” this “there” is the historical field. The subject cannot sow his story except through a space. For however much the being of being-there is historical, and so give us “Dasein” as that which appears outside the abstractions traditionally sought to describe man, always placing it in a line of labeling of preconceived ideas, substantialist and essentialist ideas. Complete historicity needs to stick to space. Other than that, the “there” of being-there would still be an abstraction as well. The “Dasein” cannot waste historicity if it does not waste space. Sloterdijk’s answer to this question is just one. We are in spheres. That is why the question of our own where it makes more sense than ever, because it is directed to the place that men produce to exist in it as they are. This place leads, here in memory of a venerable tradition, the name Sphere.


(Eduardo Rocha) #7

References:

[1] COUTURE, Jean Pierre. Sloterdijk . Malden (US) and Cambridge (UK): Polity Press, 2016, p. 35.

[2] HEIDEGGER, Martin. Letter About Humanism . Lisbon: GuimarĂŁes, 1987, pp. 48-60.

[3] FOUCAULT, Michel. The Utopian Body and the Heterotopias . São Paulo: Publisher: N-1 Edições, 2013, pp. 1-2. It is enough for me to wake up, that I cannot escape this place which, sweetly, anxiously occupies once more in each awakening. Not that it holds me to the place - because after all I cannot just move, walk around, but I can move it, remove it, change it of place - but only for this: I cannot move without it. I cannot leave him where he is to go somewhere else. I can go to the end of the world, I can hide in the morning, under the covers, shrink as much as possible, I can let myself burn in the sun on the beach, but the body will always be where I am. He’s here, irreparably, never anywhere else. My body is the opposite of a utopia, it is what is never under another sky, it is the absolute place, the small fragment of space with which, in the strict sense, I embody. My body, topia heartless. And if, by chance, I lived with him in a sort of worn familiarity, as with a shadow, as with these everyday things that I finally left to see, and that life passed into the background, like these chimneys, these roofs that pile up every afternoon in front of my window? But every morning, the same wound; under my eyes is drawn the inevitable image that the mirror imposes: thin face, curved back, myopic eyes, bald, nothing beautiful, in fact. My body is an unpleasant cage, in which I must show myself and walk. It is through your grids that I will speak, look, be seen. My body is the hopeless place to which I am condemned. After all, I believe it is against him and as if to erase it, that all utopias were born. To what do we owe the prestige of utopia, beauty, the wonder of utopia? Utopia is a place out of all places, but it is a place where I will have a body without a body, a body that will be beautiful, clear, transparent, luminous, swift, colossal in its power, infinite in its duration, protected, always transfigured; and it is quite possible that the first utopia, which is the most inextricable in the hearts of men, is precisely the utopia of an incorporeal body. Faerie, elves, geniuses, magicians, and well, is the country where the bodies are transported at the speed of light, where the wounds heal immediately, where we fall from a mountain without hurting us, where it is visible when it is wanted and invisible when it is desired. If there is a magic country it is really so that in it, I am a prince enchanted and all the beautiful cantals become furry and ugly as bears. But there is still another utopia dedicated to undoing the bodies. This utopia is the land of the dead, it is the great utopian cities left by the Egyptian civilization. But, what are mummies? They are the utopia of the body denied and transfigured. Mummies are the great utopian body that persists through time. There are the paintings and sculptures of the tombs; the statues, which, since the Middle Ages, prolong a youth that will have no end. At present, there are these simple cubes of marble, bodies geometrized by stone, regular and white figures on the large blackboard of the cemeteries. And in this city of utopia of the dead, here is where my body becomes solid as a thing, eternal as a god. But perhaps the most obstinate, the most powerful of these utopias through which we erase the sad topology of the body is administered to us by the great myth of the soul, provided from the bottom of Western history. The soul works wonderfully inside my body. In it he evidently lodges but knows how to escape from it: he escapes to see things through the windows of my eyes, he escapes to dream when I sleep, to survive when I die. My soul is beautiful, pure, white. And if my muddy body - in any case not very clean - is coming to get dirty, it is certain that there will be a virtue, a power, a thousand sacred gestures that will restore it in its first purity. My soul will last a long time, and more than a long time, when my old body will rot. Long live my soul! It is my luminous body, purified, virtuous, agile, mobile, tibial, fresh; is my smooth, castrated body, rounded up like a soap bubble. And behold, my body, by virtue of all these utopias, has disappeared. Disappeared like the flame of a candle someone blows. The soul, the tombs, the geniuses and the fairies appropriated by his force, made him disappear in the blink of an eye, they breathed on his weight, on his ugliness, and restored me a shining and perpetual body […text continues].

[4] SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Spheres I: Bubbles (Microespherology) . Translation José Oscar de Almeida Marques. São Paulo: Estação Liberdade, 2016, pp. 344-345. Chapter 5 (The Original Accompanist - Requiem for a Rejected Organ). Bible: Matthew 3:10 "And now the ax is laid unto the root of the trees; the whole tree, therefore, that does not produce good fruit, is cut down and thrown into the fire."

[5] Bataille, George. The Damn Part . Translation by Júlio Castañon Guimarães. São Paulo and Belo Horizonte: Autêntica, 2013, p. 50. For him, the intersolar relations, the emission of lightning from astro to star, the crossing of the guts, the making of pregnancy and the realization are important. The sun as an element that gives everything and generates life without asking anything in return.


(Eduardo Rocha) #8

Figures:

Uterus Drawing. Embryo and Placenta. Leonardo da Vinci. (1510).

Foams.
image

Transition from a bubble bag to a flattened polyhedral wall, according to studies by Frei Otto.
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The born of Venus. Sandro Botticelli. (1477-1478). The goddess is about to leave her boat, a shell anchored in the center of the composition. Although the name of the painting refers to the birth of Venus, this fact occurred in less poetic circumstances. According to Greek mythology, the goddess would have arisen from the fertile foam created when the genitals of her father, Uranus, were thrown into the sea.
image

Drawing of Jonas. Map (1595).
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Bible:

  • Jonah 2: 1 "And Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the inward parts of the fish."

  • Jonah 2: 2 And he said, In my distress I cried unto the LORD, and he answered me; I cried out of the belly of hell, and you heard my voice."

  • Mark 1: 8 "I have baptized you with water; but he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost.”

  • Mark 16:16 "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned. "

Garden of Delights. Hieronymus Bosch. (1504).
image


(Eduardo Rocha) #9

The text. I’m sure there are some errors, but it’s better to see.
Spheres - Bubbles and Foams.docx (1.7 MB)


(Eduardo Rocha) #10

The next reading will be the introduction called “Aerimotos” (Page 75-202). I could not translate that word, but I believe it is an “aerial earthquake” (Aerimotos) or a kind of air shake.

1 The Gas War: The Atmoterrorist Model.
2 Increasing Explanation.
3 Air conditioning.
4 The soul of the world in agony: The emergence of immunity systems
Intermediate consideration: Light compulsion and irruption in the articulated world
End of the tour.
5 Program.
Transit: Neither contract nor organism. Approach to the multiplicities of spaces, which, unfortunately, are called societies.


(Eduardo Rocha) #11

Hello guys. Here are the considerations on the second part of the Sloterdijk Foams readings. Introduction Aeromotos to Transit: neither contract, nor organism - approach the multiplicities of space, which, unfortunately, are called society (Page 75 - 202). In the introduction about "Aerimotos", "The Gas War and the Atmoterrorist model", the chapter appears to be interesting, but dislocated. When it seemed that he was going to launch into the subject changed the tone of his speech to something else that are immunity systems. This chapter so far of the three books is the most out of the things we study and not bad, but it sounds like something that came out of nowhere. Sloterdijk talks about basically the conquest of the air by men, especially with 1 and 2 World Wars and the human forms of housing like houses, apartments and manners of tools for daily use of the man by means of air or some type of gas. We have the new technical design: what was the "world of life", has now become a climatic technique. We have, according to him, "air in unexpected places". For Sloterdijk this model at least until now is going to be a mark of the 20th century that we must observe as: I - terrorism that established interactions between enemies under post-military foundations, II - The concept of product design (most likely design), because functionalism was able to re-enter the world of perception and III - ideas about the environment, because the phenomena of life and knowledge were linked to each other in a depth not known until then.

Sloterdijk describes a German attack on French Canadians using chlorine in Yprés on 22 April 1915. Sloterdijk called this situation “The Gas War: The Model Terrorism” (an air terrorism or suspended in the air). This was for him, the first great use of chlorine gas as a means of combat by a “gas regiment” created for this purpose. With the attack, the soldiers were left with “toxic effects” such as severe damage to the lungs and airways, irritations, ringing in the ears, tremors, foams from the mouth, spitting blood, etc. (he speaks of foaming in the cerebral and pulmonary veins of soldiers). This is an introduction of the environment in the struggle of opponents. It was in the 20th century that we would see with greater potential the studies about the enemy and technological mechanisms to eliminate them through the environment. It is a time that consists of pointing not to the body of an enemy, but rather to its environment. Let us say that the honor of killing of personal value and heroism or even the face-to-face confrontation of the western was now seen as conditions of distance combat and anonymous battles with technical materials, is what is now called “chemical warfare.” Recently in 2018 we have reports of chemical attacks on Syria with Sarin gas. “According to its principle of acting, all terrorism is conceived atmoterroristically. It has the form of an attack against the environmental conditions of the enemy’s life, starting with toxic attack to the most immediate resource of the surroundings of a human organism, the air that breathes” (SLOTERDIJK, 2006, p. 89).

With the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the United States began a "war on terror" campaign (a series of films were created after that period). However, it has been overlooked that terrorism is not an enemy, but a modus operandi , a method of struggle, which, as a general rule, is divided between both sides of a conflict. That is why I believe that the phrase "war on terrorism" is a meaningless description. It raises an allegory as an enemy. There is no free terrorist attitude. There is no terrorist attack. Every terrorist attack is understood as a counter-attack within a series that in the case, is considered initiated by the enemy. As I said at the beginning, the chapter seems to speak about something common and current, since in the other two books we speak almost of the whole history of man, from theology, cosmology, physics, religion, anthropology, etc. What we must understand here is that we only understand terrorism when we investigate the environment from the point of view of its destructibility. We take advantage of the circumstances that the inhabitants of a city have a relation with their surroundings, a relation of users, because they consume in a natural way as a condition of their own existence. A relation of the surroundings, of the environment or of the surroundings appears. Sloterdijk says that terror can be anticipated as any possible way of using violence against environmental conditions of human existence. We can keep in mind from poisoning drinking water, fires or rumors and embarrassing news (In the Black Mirror episode 1 of Season 1 called "The National Anthem," the British prime minister is challenged by a terrorist who kidnapped the princess. He requires the politician to have sex with a live pig on TV). Terrorism is a child of modernity, as it has been matured to an exact definition of a principle of attack on the environment and the immune defense of an organism or a way of life. We will see much the institution of disinfection or dedetization as new aseptic practices for war and peace. From residences in the defense of ants, cockroaches, fungi, termites, etc. An antiparasitic fight. We would be acting in self-defense. Atmospheric forms of eliminating the extermination of living organisms had to penetrate the human context. Interesting that I still had not realized it. What would later lead to biological wars, epidemiological espionage, bioterrorism and public healthy (Typhus, Ebola, Swine Flu, Anthrax, Sarin, neurotoxics, biochemists, Aids, etc.).


(Eduardo Rocha) #12

A few months ago, here in Brazil newspapers talked about a toxic agent used to contaminate a former Russian spy being of military origin. The substance reaches the nervous system and disrupts the vital functions of the body. Another similar case was from a former agent Alexander Litvinenko, who died in 2006 on British soil after being poisoned with the radioactive polonium-210 substance. It seems that with the two great wars the human way of life began to be modified along with our three main forms of existence and movement of humans (oil, electricity and medicalization - penicillin). This aerial style was seen with the gas chambers and as a “militarization of the disinfection procedures”. In the scope of Criminal Law, we see a form of atmoterrorism for the extermination of organisms by the destruction of their environment. In Nevada in the United States the so-called “gas chamber” was put into operation for human executions. In these chambers criminals inhaled toxic vapors resulting in asphyxiation since the gas (In the film Batman vs. Superman, weapon used by Batman as an artifice to fight Superman is a grenade of kryptonite in gaseous form) prevents the transport of oxygen in the blood (a way of combining effectiveness and painless). In more recent times we saw Chernobyl on April 26, 1986, in the then Soviet Union, would also have a tragic fate, but by means of nuclear and radioactive elements such as the Fukushima I nuclear accident in Japan in 2011. These accidents with all certainty have affected and affect the environment up to now, not only in the human space as in nature. In the midst of pop culture there is a large and growing creation of films, comics, stories of biological contacts, say with strange elements. From zombie movies, epidemics, organisms from another planet, contamination and apocalyptic scenarios (as in World War Z, Annihilation - Netflix.) If we think of the planet as its atmospheric condition, we will see that the air elements are also present functioning in a climate type interior for breathable conditions reaching up to the human bubbles and the babies breathing for the first time outside of the mother. What everyone has in common is space and environment, since everything is done by him, they are “aerial weapons” and represent a central phenomenon of atmoterrorism also entering through state means. The situation seen so far is fundamental since in almost all modern and local machines, gas presents itself as a present, from engines, plants, industries, refrigerators and other pollutants giving vent to the climatic concern of the globe. Concern over air pollution is so great that most countries in the world met in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and signed an agreement called the Kyoto Protocol, which came into force in 2005. By this international treaty, countries have committed to reducing the emissions of gases responsible for raising the Earth’s average temperature due to the increase in the greenhouse effect (called global warming). At the time, the three countries responsible for the largest emissions of carbon dioxide were the United States, China and Russia.

The atmoterrorism can be seen especially in its state aspect that would be marked by the development of the aerial weaponry that allows the elimination of the immunizing effect of the space distance and propitiates the globalization of the war through the tele-directed systems. We will see nuclear weapons, as evidence of catastrophe, massive destruction, and thermal death in immediate environmental radioactive obliteration. Radiation cannot be seen, but the enemy understands and feels its effects, but not only it. The environment becomes a space full of threats (water, air, land, food, animals, diseases, pregnancy, skin, etc.). Thus, after the launch of the two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the explanation of the radioactive element, the atmospheric momentum of tele-energy weapons represents the culmination of the atmospheric domain. Gas chambers were used in the Third Reich as part of a public program aimed at eliminating people with physical, mental or "moral" defects, and undesirable politicians in the 1930s and 1940s. At that time, the gas used was carbon monoxide, the escape of gasoline-powered cars, trucks or army tanks. During the Holocaust, gas chambers were designed to accept large groups as part of the Nazi policy of genocide against Jews. The Nazis also targeted gypsies, homosexuals, physically and mentally disabled, intellectuals and clergy. And on September 3, 1941, 600 Soviet prisoners of war were gassed with Zyklon B at Auschwitz I, this was the first experience with gas at Auschwitz. The Zyklon was placed in a metal housing to be heated and generate steam. After a while, with everyone in the chambers already dead, the exhaust fans sucked the gas, allowing the bodies to be withdrawn. It appears in front of us, an outline of the beginning of a special climatology and next to it an increasing manipulation of the breathable air happens to be central and cultural subject. From the references of the atmoterrorist procedures of the gas war and the genocidal extermination of gas, what we see is a paradigm of the beginnings of a design intervention by which the public, private and aerospace microclimates are projected and produced as artists. The atmoterrorism will provide in the modernity atmospheric explanations. They are decisive modern shocks for the now climactic human enclosures. Enclosures that have "world of life" conditions. Being in the world is transferred to a situation of being in the air or being in the breathable. The human being like everyone else is a pupil of the air, in which Sloterdijk somehow demonstrated in Spheres: Bubbles. The beginning of a theory of human cultures in the form of organization of existence in greenhouses.

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 105):

However, what means air, climate, respiratory environment and atmosphere, both in micro and macroclimatological sense and, mainly, from the theoretical-cultural and theoretical-mediatic point of view, can only be experienced after the trip by the modes and levels of the practices exterminators and atmoterrorists during the twentieth century, and now we can recognize that the twenty-first century is making new manifestations in this respect. Aeromotos: with the explanation of the conditions of air, climate and atmospheres it is against the original advantage of those existing in a primary means of existence, and its judgment in favor of him is considered to be naive. As is understood retrospectively, when humans in their preceding history could lie below any part of the sky outdoors or indoors, confined in the unquestionable assumption that the surrounding atmosphere - with the exception of miasma zones - would allow them breathed, made use of a privilege of naivety, which was lost forever after the twentieth century. Those who live after this historical censorship and move in a cultural zone synchronized with Modernity are expressly condemned to the design of atmospheres and concern for the climate, whether in rudimentary or elaborate forms. He has to confess his willingness to participate in Modernity, wishing to capture by his expressing power from the previously quietly sublime or environmentally surrounding-surrounding environment.

Terrorism is not a person, but a means, a way of existing in the world. The quake can be felt and seen as a slaughterhouse. That may be from a fire like Dresden, concentration camps, toxic chambers, volcanoes or a cloud like the Napalm with which the United States involved Vietnam. Tremors in the air and often shake the bodies of those who have the natural involvement of the air. Under an increasingly polluted air, black, toxic, hot and suffocating. If we think of missiles, they are nothing more than airborne weapons that in turn have the shape of capsules. Where the interior is controlled and with the possibility of being seen and manipulated technically. Since the aim of atmoterrorism is to reach the environment, and consequently the enemy, one cannot fail in this attempt of an eagerness to close an atmosphere, since the perils of designs failures can reach those who want to reach others. Atmoterrorist attacks hit enemy worlds using heat and radiation and rely on both technical and tactical reasons for airborne aircraft operations, even guided or heat-aware systems. The pharmaceutical industry, aesthetic and medical (In the treatment especially for retinal displacement, there is a specific procedure in the placement of gas for treatment of ophthalmological vitrectomy diseases) would also use sterile and aseptic capsules for their activities, insecticide spray format, perfumes , balloon filling machines, tires, aerosols, nebulization in the form of gas, even the human body was sometimes thought of as a capsule that has a standard thermal model and compatible with the possibilities of life and health. Fever is a climatic phenomenon that can have motives ranging from diseases, contaminations, atmoterrorisms or deimunizing organisms (a simple flu). Climate catastrophes become the mark of the 20th and 21st century. Temperature, climate, and immunization are now regulated and thought of to have an inner order and function of life. The thermostat is the device that controls the temperature variations of a system, trying to keep it at a constant temperature. A step towards climate control. The war has gone through a "greening" and with numerous side effects. A name we must not forget is Foucault with his studies on biopolitics.


(Eduardo Rocha) #13

Sloterdijk then goes on to talk about systems of immunity that is nothing more than to open such artificial spaces as greenhouses arrives at "thermo-political paradoxes", makes explode in all regions of the world the remnants of a faith and a security in the name of "radical Enlightenment of the market, "a world of security and the promise of a better life that quickly feels unbalanced as on a tightrope the immune norms of the proletariat and the peripheral populations. Suddenly several masses are uncovered, but without knowing exactly the meaning of their expulsion. Here Sloterdijk intelligently speaks in a certain way of culture and how houses become ontological therapeutic stations of ecstatic beings, precisely because they may suffer from immunodeficiency and can become ill from lack of meaning. A sieve not to fall into the abyss of nihilism, filters before the senseless, sanatoriums to treat disorders of what is significant. This in a way contributed to some hermeneutics of "homelessness." A spatial disorientation. Heidegger believed that this lack of homeland is in fact a sign of the modern age or a symptom of modern man, for he could not perceive this without also regretting. What remains is to give a positive meaning to it. In the case of the Jews we have a vision that in the historical development of the monotheistic campaigns, "theocratic sovereignty", became determinant through the way of Judaism through the spaces and the epochs and presents features mostly defensive and separatist of existence and lack of homeland. Separatism occurs to the extent that Judaism has rejected any kind of "cultural community" with other people of religion. A missionary turnaround was recognized at an extremely short stage. For most of the time Judaism has positioned itself with a "defensive universalism".

The people of Israel first produced a form of tribal life, of the small state and with the “Roman holocaust,” under the conditions of exile and dispersion a theological overabundance. The Jewish people had the idea of ​​living under the watchful eye of an observer God, this developed in the sense of a counter-observation of this God, thanks to an eccentric theology based on the idea of ​​Covenant. They realized that their very existence had the value of preaching, of ad destined to the universe. The mere fact that they existed had a meaning. This self-preservation was lived as a divine intervention, the continuation of the life of Judaism in the world was the divine proof coming from history. The preservation of Judaism observes the rigorous laws of life, in a process of historical choice. History makes a selection, demands a decision, it is the one that “sorts” the men. When the harsh realities give the touch of men’s reunion, only a few respond “present.” The rest is history’s justification. In it a minority in minority is sifted, in order to prolong as pure as possible the monotheistic adventure in its original form, the life under the law and behind the protective hedge that surrounds the Torah (and still with all the force that went in the unfolding of the fundamental paradox of this religious structure, the fact that the universal God is reserved for a single people).

If a homeland is considered a place where permanence becomes relative, a type of housing changeable, transferable. One can travel the globe, one can go from one country to another, or have none, but one must live somewhere, no matter where. We have the Parisian clochards who live under bridges. Another case that came to mind is the gypsies and Husserl’s phrase, which became very controversial on Derrida’s account (Zizek also talks about gypsies in his recent book). The work in question is called “The Crisis of European Humanity and Philosophy”. It appears in the context in which Husserl defines what is to him the European spirit and not only European, and in that it groups Europe with the United States, with the English world, adding that it is not a matter of considering in this case, Indians or "Gypsies which roam continuously throughout Europe”. It is enough to see the case of immigrants recently. They live the illusion of cold and discouragement, but with the world picture of heat there is somewhere that they can enjoy. The search for a hug that circulates. Fundamentalist movements show that the construction of “houses” and private insurance, as systems of indirect solidarity, is not yet able to meet the needs of those who are symbolically and materially “homeless.” Such insurance systems are one of the forerunners of modernity insofar as modernization is defined as a gradual replacement of vague symbolic immunological structures, of the sort of ultimate religious interpretations of the risks of human life, by social security benefits and calculated techniques. This unpredictability or a “journey of adventure” had God as companion. But now, in certain modern essential points, the insurance of professions, contracts, business and life take the place of the destinies that were in the hands of God.

At the beginning of Foams, we have seen that (I believe) it is a negation that the universe consists of a single soap bubble that we have inflated, but that millions of soap bubbles closely adjacent or with dividing membranes intersect and interfere everywhere. The bubbles in the aggregate of the multiple possibilities of human spaces cannot stabilize only with a defensive character. The human spaces gain processes of form in which the defense and the invention become in itself. The human domains that can be seen as cells in the social foam use their devices and mechanisms of expansion that can be from the installation of a habitat, even by the interweaving of personalized networks of communications. Just look at the productions of one of the most characteristic novelties of the innovative world of the media, the interface that no longer designates the meeting space between faces, but the point of contact between face and not face or between two faces, besides we have and the use of similar media, a user-defined world image, and a few others that Sloterdijk speaks in Spheres I - Bubbles in the chapter "Between Faces: On the Emergence of the Inner Interfacial Sphere," "Men in the Magic Circle: For a History of the Ideas of Fascination by proximity” and “Digression 1: transmission of thoughts", which is said to have a direct relationship with Positivism and bourgeois revolutions of eighteenth and nineteen centuries. When we look at the world around us, when we walk in the malls and watch TV, when we notice everything in the contemporary world by quick glances on the Internet, it is difficult not to value these brilliant insights of Marx. Only then can we see how much Marx is current. For example, there is a part in "The Capital" that he says that when the world seemed calm, remember, China and the tables began to dance, pour encourager les autres. At the time of this writing, there were anti-feudal rebellions in China and, in Europe, a fever of mysticism of "Spiritism", in the sessions where tables tremble, etc. Marx uses these grouped images ironically to speak of something that only today we can actually see. Only today do we know that tables dance (without "spirits") and no longer need anti-feudal revolutions. We also know that Positivism was extremely present in the nineteenth century, especially in Europe and with it began telecommunicative and communication experiences at a distance to other worlds. Sloterdijk in Bubbles speaks of these bourgeois traditions of new procedures like talking to the dead, telepathy, possessions, mesmerism, animal magnetism, the development of new machines, hypnosis, people trying to photograph spirits or in more primitive times the shamans and other mystical experiences, etc. Things that gave birth to Psychoanalysis and the discovery of the unconscious, a circle of curative energy between the magnetizer and a patient or erotomagic theories and practices of the early modern era, photography clubs, mutual aid centers, science lectures center, culture centers that later on in less developed countries emerged as a late wave of remains of enlightenment. If we know Marx we know the reasons why the tables dance and, because of their wooden heads, have terrible ideas that put them encouraging other objects, not just tables, to dance and try to do much more. There is constant animation in the world of things. An animation of such order that they put themselves before us as subjects and, for this very reason, they transform us into objects.

Sloterdijk (2012, pp. 87-88):

Puységur already knew, in a manner similar to that of Mesmer, that his personality constituted in the hypnotic cures the agent itself - in a more precise formulation, the agent was the intimate bond that was produced between him and the patient. This "connection" - in a more recent terminology: transference - served as a means of a methodical and successful practice in terms of deep psychology. At least until the middle of the nineteenth century this procedure was constantly developed and practiced in credible ways. Schopenhauer stated that this discovery would be quite possibly the most important in the whole spiritual history of man, even if she presented more than at once resolved enigmas to reason. In fact, here came the irruption of a movement towards a secularized deep psychology that was able to free its knowledge from traditional religious and pastoral psychology (whose psychological competence was certainly confirmed in the light of unconsecrated access to the unconscious). The discovery of the unconscious touches on that sphere, in which the counter-intuitions of the ancient esoteric converged into the specifically modern structure of knowledge, constructed in its own way and in principle in a counterintuitive way; of course, however, both must seek to end their articulation with "direct experience".

We perceive within us a dimension that is at the same time that surrounds us. In me it is what I breathe, what I share, of which I am part and counterpart. The spheres are spaces of sympathy, spaces tuning, spaces of participation. If it does not presuppose its existence, we could not share a word with the other, and thus take for granted, also equip ourselves with a new intensity. Even the most banal interaction involves our participation in the constitution of fields. Without them there would be no families, existential communities, communes, equipment, people. No one would bear to spend a day in the same room with another man if the two participants did not have the incredible ability to connect through common frequencies and tuning. It is no wonder that in the introduction of Spheres, Sloterdijk refers to two inscriptions that Plato placed at the entrance of the Academy. The warning to those who were not geometers but, on the other, more hidden, he invited away to those who consented to keep loving dramas (love, Phaedrus and in the end mentions Ficino). The bond that unites these two maxims or warnings is explained quickly and summarized in another term only in the twentieth century became important: the transference. With Rousseau, we have come to believe in an intimacy that is almost unassailable, as the place not only of Cartesian certainty, of intellectual order, but of truth taken as sincerity, a kind of “sincere heart,” and then when, even in the Renaissance, of individualism, of intimacy, and of “interior” and “exterior”, began to gain prestige in Montaigne and in the cultural and social scope of the time. An entrance into the heart of psychoanalysis, or even thinking that daimons can invade our thinking and occupy spaces as houses, even at our request, as in the case of popular spiritism. This all echoed also in genre literatures such as tales, essays, horror stories, mystery and suspense stories, things like Frankenstein, vampires, Mesmeric Revelation, and Allan Poe’s Premature Burial.

Sloterdijk (2016, pp. 26-27):

Modernity has been characterized by technically producing its immunities and increasingly separates its security structures from traditional literary and cosmological creations. High-technology civilization, the welfare state, the global market, the media sphere: all these great projects aim, in an era without layers of protection, to emulate the imaginary security of the spheres, rendered impossible. Security networks and policies must now take the place of the heavenly layers; the telecommunication should do the times of the surrounding embrace. Wrapped in electronic media skin, the body of humanity must create a new immune composition for itself. Since the old continens, which embraced everything and contained - the celestial vault - is irrevocably lost that which is no longer covered, is no longer contained, the old contentum, must furnish itself its satisfaction over artificial continents, under skies and artificial domes.

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 193):

The permanent human works in the proper spheres of life are therefore the first aphrogenic activity: they produce the multiplicities of bubbles or domiciles, from whose agglomerations in dense neighborhoods arises the perceptible effect of the stacking of spaces which we call foams. By this generalized concept of immunity structures the bridge that leads from the theory of the body’s own defense mechanisms to the theory of protected space endoatmosferich and, from this, the theory of cultures as units of autoclimatizing way of life (and potentially autointoxicanting). The discourse on foam encounters a metaphor that is used as an explanatory expression of multiplicities, becoming theoretically interesting, of vital-space immunological improvisations intertwined with each other, overlapping tumultuously. It serves to formulate a philosophical-anthropological interpretation of modern individualism, of which we are convinced that it cannot be sufficiently described with the means that now exist.

The foam opens up a new possibility of explaining what classical sociology has called “society” or “social synthesis.” For this, Sloterdijk speaks of an answer to a Christian question of how is “society” possible as a connection of social beings? Apparently, the classical responses would give us a substantialist and descriptive framework, but Sloterdijk picks up the phenomenological and ontological hook. The well-known notions of social division of labor or division of labor by Durkheim and Smith, Marx’s relation of capital and productive forces, Habermas (intersubjectivism), states of nature or even a human nature (such as contractualists) God’s". Indeed, with his theory of the spheres he baptizes man by an amphibiology where the multiplicities of spaces that approach this theme of social synthesis have a character of surroundings or as Heidegger called a clearing (Lichtung). A situationist arsenal, plural, the philosophical decision to conceive of unity as an effect and to disenchant any concept of “society” that allows it to precede its elements. This means not looking for its model in unity ontological view of individualized living beings, but in the polypecpectivist unity of the common situation or of a reunion meeting or a composite composition lived at the same time by several bubbles that can be heaped around each other, but always symbolized in a different way. At the end of part 4 of the chapter Sloterdijk mentions that this view of the Foams was vaguely delineated by Gabriel Tarde (I do not know) in saying that this interpretation as human agglomerations with a look at the static, formal and atmospheric conditions of the coexistence of human beings in space leads us to an analytical condition of association as comprehensible with flat configurations of human “society” aggregates, in a manner analogous to certain mosses and lichens distinguished by their imprecise contours. He points out that this reference to a flat association is recognized in the rhizomatics of Deleuze and Guatarri, also in Vilém Flusser’s “living space” as a “long and broad but low box.” In these notes, “society” appears as interconnected carpet. And its most important dimension is its capacity for lateral spatial extension. “Societies” are composed of beings that are inside and outside their association, in a vision of a “flat foam.”

"Foams are rhizomes-inner-space, whose neighborhood principle must find them, first, in adjacent lateral configurations, in flat condos or co-isolated associations" (SLOTERDIJK, 2006: 231). At the end of the chapter he says that the multiplicities-space integrated by co-isolation are groups of islands, comparable to those of the Cyclades or the Bahamas, in which similar cultures and autochthonous one’s flourish. And he says that this is perhaps the most important way of understanding man and his self-production through isolation or as he speaks: insulation on islands and an endogenous space. A space where men make themselves and from there they leave (a theory of capsules, studies and human islands). Well at the end it says that the best way to view "society" is seen in the aphronographs or photographs of a foam draw from a great height (in panoramic view).

References:

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas III: Espumas (EsferologĂ­a Plural) . TraducciĂłn of Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, pp. 89, 105, 193 and 231.

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Spheres I: Bubbles (microespherology) . Translation José Oscar de Almeida Marques. São Paulo: Estação Liberdade, 2016, pp. 26-27.

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Critique of Cynical Reason . São Paulo: Estação Liberdade, 2012, pp. 87-88.


(Eduardo Rocha) #14

Figures

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German gas attack against Russians on the Eastern Front. (1915).

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Gas mask. Protection against Sarin. Syria.

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Atomic bomb.

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Phan Thi Kim Phuc became known all over the world as the girl photographed in tears, running with the body burned by Napalm. Living Symbol of the Vietnam War. The image taken on June 8, 1972 by Associated Press photographer Huynh Cong, known as Nick Ut, won the Pulitzer Prize and World Press Photo of the Year.


Zyklon B was mainly used to remove lice and insects from prisoners. At Auschwitz, the largest Nazi concentration camp, only a few consignment loads were used in the gas chambers. Not to despair the victims, the poison was manipulated chemically to not emit odor.

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Partial view of an air-conditioning facility at the Beyeler Foundation Museum in Rieten. Renzo Piano. (1997).

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Gas Chamber. Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum.

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The effects of animal (…) magnetism. The poodle Mesmer transposes the Parisian society, along with its dogs, in convulsive crises. (Caricature of the "Mesmeromania" around 1780/1785).

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Mesmerism: The Operator Unleashes a Hypnotic Trance. Copper engraving. Ebenezer Sibly. (1794).

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The Facts in the Case of Lord Waldemar by Edgar Allan Poe (Alfred Kubin). In history we have a macabre tale of magnetizing a man to the brink of death and as a result his soul has been trapped for seven months in a physically dead body. This scene is bizarre because after an attempt at resurrection, the imprisoned soul continued to speak to the living, but in a putrefying body that was breaking apart.

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City in the Air. Arata Isozaki. (1962).

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Internet connections in the Northern Hemisphere. Bill Cheswick / Hal Burch


North and South America. Photo on a cloudless night. (Nasa).

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Beachness Project. NOX / Lars SpuyBroek.

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Photograph of Foams.


(Eduardo Rocha) #15

Insulations. For a theory of capsules, islands, and greenhouses

The next chapter on Foams will be: I - Insulations. For a theory of capsules, islands, and greenhouses (page 237-260). We have: A - Absolute Islands and B - Atmospheric Islands. I decided to share this part I in two since it is a very large and very complicated part. I understood the beginning of it, but it gets rather strange afterwards. The second part is (C - anthropogenic islands, the place where man emerges; a) Chirotope, the world at hand, b) Fonotopo, be within reach of the voice; III - The Uterotope or hysterotope, caves and incubators of the world; IV - Thermotope, space of comfort; V - The Erotopo, domain of the envy, steps of the desire; VI - Ergotopo, communities of effort and belligerent empires; VII - Alethotopo or mnemotopo, the republics of knowledge; VIII - Thantotopo or theotopo, The province of the divine; IX - The Nomotopo, the first constitutional theory and Summary (page 275-374).

Sloterdijk briefly revisits the end of the previous chapter by talking about the panoramic view of "societies" gives us the information that the whole can be nothing more than an unstable and momentary synthesis of an agglomeration, a heap of boiling or moving agglomerations. A system of alveolus and vicinity of air bubbles, this would graphically show us that "societies" are polyspherical climatic installations in both physical and psychological sense. In modernity we would see adjustments of temperatures and great inequalities in the leap of animation, immunization and level of comfort and lightness that the interior of the fields turns into psycho-semantic tensions and psycho-social themes. In this situation, the policy should be analyzed with a fluid dynamic for semantic loads and sense vectors. Social policy in the Welfare State is a struggle formalized both by new distributions of comfort opportunities and by access to more advantageous immunity technologies. We must admit that if human beings can coexist in "societies" it is because they are already bound and referred to each other in another sense (as the psychology of the construction of the interior space as we saw in Spheres - I is earlier the politics in the Spheres).
Sloterdijk (2006, pp. 232-233):

"Societies are multiplicities composed of their own spaceships, in which human beings are only able to participate thanks to their psychopical difference, which always carry them with them. Thus, to be in "society" in the typical human way, there must be a psychic capacity for coexistence. Without prior psychotropic attunement the assembled would not be reunited; or their associations would never be more than autistic congresses, comparable to groups of cooling urchins, as Schopenhauer characterized "bourgeois society." Just because there is a psychic conformation of space, in addition to communication, before social association, participation in subsequent meetings is possible. If it were otherwise, every human individual, as René Crevel said, would have to remain encapsulated in himself, "like an old prostitute, who is only a ruin to his corset." How, then, can we explain the indisputable phenomena of spiritual transmission, "the wealth of our undivided realms," the "imponderable interchange, by the real"?

According to Sloterdijk, individuals are sociable to the extent that by a kind of psychosocial exclusion they are able to move from a primitive dyadic space to the polyvalent space of social contacts (sharing coexistences that are most often symbolic: state, money, currency, language, religion, habits, ethics, customs) both new and developed, foams or enriched networks, with the inclusion of bonds without compromise. Sociability is conditioned by the fact that people hold within the limits of the measure of power and right of the sphere itself, in the consciousness precisely, that power and law do not extend to another sphere. Over all considerations so far Kant had spoken in his writings on a physics which shows that Kant’s definition of space as a possibility of being together must be replaced by a doctrine which is that being together is enabling space. While in Kant, things fill a preexisting space, best represented, and subsist in one another in the mode of reciprocal closure. In the surreal space of Sloterdijk we have a psycho and socio-spherical space, where the reunited and the clusters, precisely because of their coexistence is that they conform (make up) themselves the space. They are huddled together and form a specific psychosocial place for a way of mutual coexistence and reciprocal evocation. A great difference between the welcoming spaces of the physical conception of space of Kant and the autogenous, automotive (self-moistened) receptacles of spherology. In this way a temporal connection between generations is made present as successive coexistences. What we call “culture” are spaces integrated by geometric configurations and common patterns (Sloterdijk speaks in tensions.) What culture is to be under tension for uprights, I believe he is talking about a world reticulated with trusses, air, and other manners of materials This model can be projected and its permanence in it depends on a tensile force - the culture - tension and tensegrity in which a static like the air of a balloon under the walls is founded. I did not understand very well, but I think which relates to oval forces and an interweaving to structures), and the concept of tradition emerges as a process of collective conservation of models in time, but a conservation of form. All content is form. Therefore, atheism is an outrage to form (the spherical as we have seen). In more traditional cultures, learning acquires a sense of accommodation in its existing form. As for modern cultures, there is an openness to progressive explanations and learning means taking part in permanent model review processes. It is enough to see the “Feuerbach Theses” as an instrument to overcome the theory and practice duality, Tocqueville when he wrote “Democracy in America” ​​and says that he meets an American sailor and asks why his country’s ships are built to last little; he responds to me without hesitation that the art of navigation is progressing so rapidly every day that the best ship would soon become almost useless if it continued its existence. Marx and Engels when they published the Communist Manifesto, where the celebrated phrase “everything that is solid breaks up in the air” was made present. At the end of that century, the nineteenth, John Dewey laid the foundations of new education, whose motto became “learning to learn.” This idea was propagated throughout the world by a partner of yours, with the significant title book “Education for a Changing Civilization,” the famous Kilpatrick.

The Brazilian philosopher Anísio Teixeira studied with him in the United States in the twenties of the twentieth century. When he returned to Brazil, he insisted on education aimed at “problem solving”, for a pedagogy transformed into social engineering. New models would especially arise the so-called “postmodernism” where many people end up using the word “deconstruction” in the wrong way. These models would come from literature and art - Salvador Dalí, Danto and Warhol and even capitalist neoliberalism [1] whose influences were Keynes, Karl Mannheim, Roosevelt, Eugene Debbs, Woodrow Wilson, Freire, Sanders and more recently with Nozick, Rawls and Obama, Hilary Clinton and that every learning place is a timed microsphere in the apprentice foam. Deconstruction is not demolishing or destroying or “dumping”. Deconstructing is not reordering. To deconstruct is a term of Derrida that has to do with the term “redescription” in Rorty. But redescription is not simply to describe it again or to write otherwise. Nor is it equal to the re-signifying of John Dewey’s pragmatist tradition. What Derrida did in deconstructing texts has to do with Rorty’s re-writing because they have taken seriously a real movement in the history of philosophy. Many people here in Brazil use “postmodern” almost as a curse, pejorative or even critically, but I would not particularly dare say that Lyotard is wrong, but to say that the postmodern is the end of also does not sound enough to me because Sloterdijk in No Same Boat - Essay on Hyperpolitics develops a text in this format of great narrative, still valid. But, in fact, we make large metanarratives again. We do not give them the same credit as before, but, in short, they have come back to philosophers’ interest.
Sloterdijk (1999, p. 59):

In a monotheistically conditioned culture, declaring that God is dead implies a shaking in all references and the proclamation of a new form of world. With "God", the principle of belonging to all people in the unity of a created space is extinguished. After that the calendar years take on even new meaning. In the future it will no longer suffice to place itself after Christ - another meaning for "after" hangs in the air, even for those who did not take the age of the Lord so seriously. If the son died, then the father would not last too long; as soon as the father followed his son in death, people stood side by side as orphaned pluralities in a monstrous world landscape - presently ordained in more than 190 nations, in which about 5,100 languages ​​are spoken (in a more restricted count indicates two thousand) and six billion people - with no name or common denominator, without knowing if in the absence of a collective creator a collective work can still be defined. Post modernity is the era of the "after God", and the post-classical empires with their local world openings.

The Theory of Spheres is a large narrative, an almost “metanarrative.” I believe that this period, state of mind or moment has already been surpassed in the time that we are. I position myself in a sense that a certain lightness is taking the contemporary scene, work and game are merging, we have a free time for things we did not have in the 70s and 80s, just see social networks, a slight form of market, flow of people and information, the substitution of mass consumption or Fordism for the idea of ​​the brand with the personal identity that it gives us and that the consumption itself has no more to do with the look of the other, but with our own solitary tannery, self-intensification, we had the May 68, only in a world of non-duty like ours, of individualized moral codes and almost irresponsible, we would be able to generate the word stress. No wonder it’s an American word. There are only stressed people if this is conceived because society has become pleasantly light. It seems that nothing else in our lives has weight, everything is a free time that we must do some training just see the great increase of academies, sports activities and Olympic spirit. Fashion and pathology show that our society is not making rules more flexible by reducing them, but by amplifying them. There is more lightness in the air, but not without introducing new weights, on another level of the ontological gravity game. We are dishonest. The modern and contemporary self is an almost empty self that seeks to intensify itself. It works as a minimization of the 5 senses in a “minimum I”. Advertisements always show you experimenting with perfume, chocolate, soap, food. A small moment of intensification of self, an orgasm - a small death - so that the feet step back to the ground. Here I adopt a certain Marxist tradition. If we go to Hegel, we will see that he was a thinker of freedom. Marx was never interested in freedom, but in emancipation. Hegel believed that history moves from less freedom to more freedom. In the beginning, one was free, the others obedient to the free. Then, more and more, freedom would grant more and more people. Marx also had a philosophy of history. He believed that history could be drawn from political revolutions of emancipation, until, with the supporting work of science and technique, man was completely emancipated from work. For him, progress called non-progress. In fact, a good part of humanity is increasingly emancipated from work, through technology (the work today is largely done by Instagram and smartphones). A part of mankind has control of its states to the point of being able to speak of its diminution, but in both cases, emancipation began to lose prestige in the face of a lack of liberal freedom. Especially in the twentieth century that Hobsbawm called “The Age of Extremes”. The more Marxist critique helped to speak that emancipation mattered more than individual liberty, the more the world began to see that without individual freedom as a basis, all the rest that could be conquered would be innocuous.
When we saw emancipation, we saw a sheet of loss of rights and fundamental guarantees, we saw totalitarianism, etc. Emancipated people, emancipated man, emancipated nation, emancipated genres - all this was revealed or little or deceit without being able to speak of individual freedom as an individual right, as a fundamental part of Human Rights. The strength of this premise has helped Liberalism well to become the common sense of our time. Postmodernity is the time of the “After God” (BC or AD) and the post-modern empires with their local world openings. Even if we are orphans, we reformulate another principle of belonging collectively to a modern horizon of (which had been lost): human rights, and it was not by chance that it was the former Christians who originally launched the human rights crusade. The modern man wants to feel the little pleasure of having some freedom guaranteed by political rights in his society, although he knows that if he has more money he will have to make such freedom more palpable. Small pleasures of consumption. There is a decrease in expectations, on the one hand, but on the other, there is the new expectation of never having to die. And in this case, we are already outside the realm of liberalism and Marxism, outside Hegel and Marx, and completely inserted in a new form of utopia, which only those who really understood technology and capitalism can imagine. The ideal of political philosophy or the new utopia that appears behind the clouds is no longer freedom or emancipation, but eternal life (never having to die). Netflix’s Altered Carbon series touches on small spots spoken here. We are mounting all possibilities, in many ways, of the growing studies of neuroscience of the 80’s, prosthetics, nanotechnology, brain-swapping, virtual life, transference of consciousness, health for longevity, advances in toxins and geneticism, security for exchange of organs, aesthetic clinics, plastic surgery, genetic engineering, etc., so that we can change the dreams of the nineteenth century, of emancipation from the work, through the dreams of the twenty-first century, of emancipation from the Terran heavy burden. We are living towards total lightness. The weight of lightness. The burden of relief and reoneration on relief.

If we think from the philosophical and cultural point of view, it was from the 1920s, the end of the first war, crisis of 1929, neoliberalism, theses of identity and formation of the Welfare State culminated one of the most fertile periods for Philosophy. It is enough to see the great names and works that we have with Foucault, Adorno, Thomas Kuhn, Badiou, Bruno Latour, Deleuze, Derrida, Dworkin, Butler, Sartre, Girard, Heidegger, Lasch, Rorty, Agamben, Benjamin, Freud, Lipovetsky, etc. Peter Sloterdijk develops in Volume III of the Spheres a theory of capsules, islands and greenhouses. A very innovative view on how to see the world and the emergence of man. What is under debate is the concept of "Insulierungen" (isolation), which refers, according to the author, to the processes of island formation.
Sloterdijk (2006, p. 237):

We will leave aside the usual dialectic of space, which relates the world and island as a thesis and antithesis to each other, to overcome both in a tourist-civilized synthesis. What interests us is a spherical theory of the island, with which it is possible to show as possible inner animated worlds and like analogous world pluralities form a block in the form of archipelago or rhizomes of the sea. In an early essay on the Abandoned Island Gilles Deleuze established a difference between islands that are separated from the continental terrestrial context by the action of sea water and islands that rise over the sea by the underwater activity of the land. This corresponds to the difference between insulation by erosion and isolation by creative emergence. The instance of human beings on the island occupies the philosopher to the extent that the island is nothing other than the dreams of men, and men mere consciousness of the island. This relationship is possible under a condition: that the man retract the movement that leads to the island, a movement that repeats and prolongs the impulse that produced the island. So geography and imagination would form a unity. Of course, the favorite question of the old explorers - What beings exist on the desert island? - it is only necessary to reply that there already exists the man, but a strange man, absolutely separated, absolutely creator, definitely an Idea of ​​man, a prototype, a man who would almost be a god, a woman who would almost be a goddess, a great Amnesiac, a pure Artist, Earth and Ocean consciousness, a huge cyclone, a charming sorceress, a statue of Easter Island. This desert island creature would be the desert island itself as it imagines and reflects its primary movement. Consciousness of the earth and the ocean, this is the desert island, ready to restart the world … it is doubtful whether the individual imagination can rise by itself to this admirable identity.

So, let’s take the island as a prototype of the world in the world. A conversion in it must attribute to it the action of isolation by the liquid element of which it is surrounded by the sides. The islands are compendiums of a small continent. It is as if these non-context surfaces were a kind of “work of art” emerging from nature, which surrounds the sea as fragments of nature’s display. They are examples of worlds because they are given as micro-continents. In them they gather their own fauna, their own flora, specific human populations in an autochthonous set of customs and recipes. We can say that this work of art has its own demarcation since the isolation of an island is what makes the island what it is. It is to say the same as the frame of a painting does for a painting, excluding it from the context of the world, and as regards the peoples and groups also make the fixed borders, it is the same as regards the peoples and groups when they make the borders fixed, which is what the insulator, the sea, manages to accomplish in relation to the island.

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 239):

If islands are world prototypes it is because they are separated enough from the rest of the world context to be able to constitute an experiment on presenting a totality in reduced format. Just as the work of art, following Heidegger, presents a world, the sea circumscribes a world. The sea as an insulation makes appear a prototype of world, whose characteristic greater is the insular climate. The climates of the islands are climates of compromise, negotiated between the contributions of the land mass, along with its peculiar biosphere, and those of the open sea. It can be said, in this sense, that the true experience of the island is climatic in nature and is conditioned by the immersion of the visitor in the island atmosphere. It is not only the exceptional biotype situation, the near-greenhouse separation from the life-process on solid ground, which gives its local color to the islands, but rather the atmospheric difference brought about by the decisive definition of the island. The islands are climatic enclaves within the general air conditions; are, with a technical expression, atmotopos, which are configured following their own laws under the effect of their maritime isolation. If the islet climate is a meteorological term, the term island climate represents a theoretical-spatial and spherological concept. The first one admits as a fact the special climatic conditions of the island, the second introduces them to a genetic investigation, inciting the question by the conditions of origin and formations of the island.

Sloterdijk says that the skies can also produce islands. In the era of utopias, the launching of islands becomes a design of great political and technical creativity. We will see citizens mobilize for the so-called Modernity project with an ideal. The moderns are island designers who come from a topological declaration of human rights in which the right to isolation is joining to the right also originating the interconnection. Within this central theory, Sloterdijk distinguishes three types of islands: I - absolute islands (boats, airplanes and space stations) in which the sea is replaced as insulator by other means, from the air, then the empty space. Then II - the construction of climate islands as greenhouses where the specific atmotopic situations of the natural island are replaced by an in vitro imitation, a technical imitation of the greenhouse effect (the atmospheric islands). And finally, III - the anthropogenic islands (generation of human life). In which the coexistence of human beings, equipped with tools, with their similar ones and the others, unleash on the inhabitants a retroactive effect of incubator. A form of isolation whose model can be observed in social engineering that succeeded in imitating it with relative success and managed to reconstruct it in the modern social states as integral capsules of well-being that replaced the original incubator by the collective construction of maternal services of rent. The understanding of the islands is done by the construction of prostheses. A technical replica of the essential characteristics of the islands. Sloterdijk believes that a certain indoctrination has been imposed on us. He says that there is a certain tendency in the political sciences, psychology, humanists, theologians, sociologists and political scientists to believe that man is no older than the great civilization, for true civilization and humanity emerges from its apogee. For all those quoted, the "man" appears already in the city, in the state or the nation. This fixation is nothing more than a lie and an ideology for a basic deception. This vision erodes the unity of human evolution and disconnects the current consciousness of the chain of countless human generations with their genetic and cultural potentials. A doctrine understood as classical and modern and which is an indoctrination, of describing man as "political being." A doctrine understood as that which establishes man with a bourgeois type that for its essential realization needs libraries, parties, capitals, academies, cathedrals, etc., but wherever this ideology avenges must impose that man is the man of civilization. A way of erasing the past and prehistory. They treat man as homo pauper and that only from his constitution and maturation should he live a life in States. It obscures the vision of a fundamental event: anthropogenesis. Here comes the metaphor of the horde as an incubator, and in it to think of man as an emergence by it. Create an image that unites concept and representation. The maternal uterus as an incubator. They are ovens where the embryos are "cooked," a place of metamorphoses from which the rigid, the indeterminate, the determinate, the non-man to the man is "baked out."

Sloterdijk (1999, p. 20):

While great civilizations already consider man as existent, in order to use it for works, functions and missions, the world of prehistory is permeated by the awareness that the art of the possible consists in calling life, in an arid and risky world, new people from existing and older people. Paleopolitics is the miracle of man’s repetition of man. It is acquired and practiced in an environment that seems to want to somehow make it difficult for people to repeat themselves in children.

As an example of absolute islands, Sloterdijk mentions submarines and space stations that already exist today as "controlled environments" and those that will still be created. These absolute islands differ from geographic islands by two characteristics: A) are not restricted to two-dimensional (horizontal surfaces). The islands of the terrestrial globe are not, therefore, absolute islands, cannot move and have their territorial demarcation made by the ocean or the waters of the river. They arise from a radicalization of the principle of enclave creation. This cannot be achieved only by mere pieces of land framed by the sea, because they only succeed in a horizontal isolation leaving the vertical insulation open. The natural marine islands are only relatively and two-dimensionally isolated. They also have a special climate because they are encased in a stream of air mass. The absolute island depends on a three-dimensional insulation, with it, the transit of the capsule landmark, or to use the artistic analogy of the picture painted on wood the installation over the space. To be absolute, an island needs to be created technically and must have features also of the premise of fixing to a place and becoming a mobile island. "That said, the unsurpassable relativity of the natural islands is doubly conditioned: by the two-dimensionality of their isolation and by the immobility of their situation. An absolute, three-dimensional and mobile island needs a revision of the relation with the element of the environment "(SLOTERDIJK, 2006, p 244). It does not have the fixation element in immobility, because it navigates with relative freedom of movement (swimming or flying).
For better visualization, Sloterdijk tells us about Captain Nemo by Jules Verne [2]. Its submarine has the characteristic of mobility-movement (MOBILIS IN MOBILI) that is nothing more than the idea of ​​the globe in movement, an idea used and appropriated by Oswald Spengler as a metaphor to characterize the existential formula of the administrator in our Faustian civilization (which was presented to us quickly in Globes). The power to navigate in all accessible places without being a determinable fixed point. The submarine can be considered a home, an island in motion as the result of the inventive spirit of the era is the first perfect technical realization of design. An idea that gives us absolute certainty of insularity. A world model of isolation. The provision of such a means of movement would not have become for the great majority of modern individuals a satisfactory and indispensable movement practice if the vehicles themselves, with their interior forms, did not connect with elemental structures of sphere-forming in the small-spatial dimension. The boat as in more moderate proportions, the car and the caravan are the mobilized nest or the absolute house. The idea of ​​taking the house with you as mobile huts. Like all modern vehicles, a homeostatic machine. With this background the boat can become a "mobile homeland" for its crews. Under the maritime law there is the recognition of the boats as extensions of the nation whose flag they raise and foreign territory. Being on land transforms logically-spatially and legally-internationally into being on board. Mobilis in mobili is the shortest way to see an absolute island. The idea of ​​absolute insularity. A world mode in cloister and introversion (closed in on itself). A "voluntary exile" or a hermit of the sea.


(Eduardo Rocha) #16

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 244):

The submarine, with freedom of movement, represents a complete insular prosthesis, which explains and reconstructs the fundamental characteristics of the insular being in its essential aspects. In the three-dimensional island not only, the enclave character of such a piece is shown; together with it, becomes aware of the principle of repression, so that islands, as magnitudes monopolizing space, use their own mass to restrict the element that is around them.

It is worth noting that in absolute islands and submarines as island prostheses they continue to be related to the natural islands, since they share with them the usual element. To be completely insulated, there must also be a change in the surrounding element, as in the case of airplanes, especially those operating at higher altitudes (even military), which must technically produce a climate for the air to breathe. Another example, more significant, used by Sloterdijk is the space station [3]. The manned space station ventures into the sea of ​​emptiness, not the element. It does not consider the conquest of space by means of a repression of use, but rather by an implantation of a body that extends as the owner of its place in space without any competition. An insular space implant to release the environment in the struggle with gravity to keep completely in on itself. Something that Newton had already begun with the launching of a rock with so much acceleration that it would never again fall into the earth, but rather in a stabilization of an orbit around the planet like a natural satellite. Recently the biggest success of this principle is of the company Space X with its launches of rockets Falcon 9, Falcon Heavy, capsule Dragon and the International Space Station.

Sloterdijk (2006, pp. 245-246):

If isolation is to be done in a three-dimensional way and allows free navigation in the surrounding element, the framing of the island will already be effected by the meeting of the land and the sea on a shore bank. The absolute islands have no coast, but external walls, and in addition on all sides. This requires a perfect hermeticism: anyone who wants to leave the environment must count on that goes immediately to emptiness; bathing in the universe is only possible with space suits help, bathing naked in the void has a bad prognosis. It is decisive for the design of the absolute island that the exceptional spontaneous atmotopic situation of the natural islands must be reconstituted in the strictly exceptional situation of the closed artificial atmotop. In the natural islands breathing takes advantage of the spontaneous configuration of the climate, which is produced in the exchange between sea air and the insular biosphere; in the interior of the absolute islands the breathing becomes unconditionally dependent on technical systems of air supply, to which submarine, aeronautical and astronautical investigation lead to increasingly elaborate states of explanation. The climate of the absolute island is only possible as absolute interior, because islands of this type navigate in an environment impossible for the life of beings that breathe, either under water, or in regions high, oxygen poor, of the terrestrial atmosphere or in the void of space: in any case, in environments where there is a stable evolutionary coupling between respiratory metabolism and air. What is element around the relative islands must become inner space on the absolute island. Anyone who tries to breathe there, rather an airborne medium brought with him, would drown himself in a minimum of time, with greater accuracy: he would die by embolism produced by emptiness.

The station represents an ontological situation of a prototype of a world much larger than any terrestrial island, since it is a machine of immanence in which existence or existence is done by technical means of the world. Again, the tradition of Heidegger becomes present in the theory of the Ge-stell (structure, frame, structure of location) in a positive version. Space stations now meet as unique members of the biologically active crew, the cosmonauts and astronauts. They have the desire to install units of biospheres like the Nasa Salad Machine, a type of mini greenhouse with the capacity to produce small vegetables like carrots, lettuces and cucumbers for the crew. In this way, space stations can be understood as environments described by space conquest technicians, such as ECLSS (Environment Control System and Life Support) systems. Viewed from this angle, it will be necessary to reconsider our concept of "nature" resulting from our anthropocentric perspective. From our new viewpoint that nature is a kind of "prosthesis" for human survival, we can redefine the "nature" originally found by man in his terrestrial environment as a preconfigured system of preservation of human life. It is not necessary to speak more in "natural" or "artificial", but in "antropotecnics" for the "anthropogeny".

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 247):

From this, a light on nature conceived anthropocentrically in the old style, which, in a retrospective view from the prostheses, can be interpreted as a system of life maintenance already found in advance, populated spontaneously, whose model of operation its inhabitants do not can make some idea physically appropriate while they live "existentially", that is, they move in it as intuition, delivery and ritual and metaphorical interpretation. Only those who leave the system can learn to understand it from the outside point of view; the view from outside is produced by the renunciation of cooperation as the accustomed and by the search for substitutive forms.

Only those who leave this system can learn to consider and understand this outside environment. Only then can one perceive a rupture between the familiar and the usual, on the one hand, and alternative forms of new and artificial life on the other. An anthropo is that out of habit for what is divine and consequently for the high. Nietzsche’s prognosis that we, the navigators of the future, not only break the bridges, but also the land that lies behind us [4] literally materializes in the airwaves of space (emptynauts). The island space is a totally isolated life maintenance system as a breathable air metabiological chamber whose policy belongs to the units to perform tasks in the management of air, water, food and waste. A complete technical system for the preparation of respirable gases, temperature control, air humidity, air filtration, waste control and ventilation [5]. Even in case of emergency and if necessary a possibility of escape the station is calculated, controlled and simulated. Island building is the inversion of dwelling no longer thought of as a treat of putting a building in an environment, but of putting (installing) an environment in a building. “While the natural situation is the environment that surrounds us, and human beings surround us, the construction of the absolute islands happens to be the case that it is the human beings themselves who conceive and dispose of the environment in which they must live later” (SLOTERDIJK, 2006, p. 254). We should not imagine the islands as microcosms, but rather as artificial implants of worlds for life. Now it is a matter of artificially re-creating an exploited environment by technical means to be supplied as habitat or housing to the real inhabitants. This analogy is seen according to Sloterdijk with the biotopic-ecological project Biosphere 2 which summarizes the human situation as a spaceship.

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 254):

On this background it is clear in what sense the inhabited island can be understood as a prototype or world model. One can speak of the existence of a world sufficiently complete when the minimum conditions of sustenance of life are fulfilled. Life support means exactly this: to satisfy the list of conditions under which a world of human life can be kept temporarily in working order as an absolute island.

The absolute island offers us an ontological experimental organization for hominism or hominization, it is the same as saying that the coexistence of human beings with their equals takes place in an effective place because human beings never see themselves naked and therefore they always carry with themselves an escort of security guards and companions (things, signs, convictions).

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 256):

The Life-Support unit, communication systems, navigation facilities, energy supply and laboratories: all of them should be treated as constitutional bodies and, similarly to human rights, should put them under protection space law through a declaration of the law of things and systems. In the old sleepy earth, which is still dormant by false truisms, most of the constitutions are formulated in such a way that in them they do not know where the nations in which they are. The place of validity of constitutions is not the object of constitutions: pre-ecotechnical thinking presupposes it as a resource, which can continue without mentioning, because it seems sufficiently explicit for capable intuitions, in the need of comment at present. Seen thus, traditional politics belongs to the era of the hermeneutic dream, at a time that was imbued with a self-conscious power-refer-to-presuppositions-inexplicable. Conventional constitutions outsource the nation in which they establish order: they ignore the nonhuman cohabitants of the nation that are necessary for humans; does not have eyes for the atmospheric conditions, in which and underneath is carried out the coexistence of the citizens and their teams. In absolute island-type world models such ingenuities are no longer permissible. In relation to the islands the emptiness raises the question of how much time will pass until the experiences achieved with its construction will be retro transferred the organization of coexistence in the earthly earths, which are presumed to be the natural containers of life. The knowledge about coexistence below outer conditions in orbital position seems, however, to be far removed from the traditional worlds of life. Your re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere will not take long to wait.

If environments are now contoured contours, they are done by technique and science. Natures implants in the car, in the mall, in the operating room, prosthetics, experiments and anthropogeny. The museum also becomes an isolation for art and objects. Everything is an isolated artifact for the search of an aesthetic harmony. Knowing now has the meaning of being able to explain and explain means power or being able to expose. A technical-scientific-artistic trip. Nature here behaves like a world facing a void, the museum as a world of life facing the black sea of ​​the frame in the frame. The second type of island are the atmospheric islands. They are artificial islands of relative character that serve as research for models of the world in isolated media. Relative islands are when their position is chosen not in the cosmic emptiness but in the surface of the earth or the sea. In the case of floating artificial islands, the surrounding sea water moves through a mass implant. A drawing that can be seen on the launching of a ship and the platforms of probes and other constructions supported on pontoons in the open sea fulfill the characteristics of floating islands.

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 262):

Just as around 1900 Georg Simmel asked, in Kantian expressions, for the formal and cognitive conditions of the possibility of coexistence of human beings (this would qualify today as a "postnational" question), so since the beginning of the nineteenth century, architects of greenhouses seek the practical conditions of acclimatization of tropical plants to Central European means They found the answer in the form of temperate glass buildings, which were offered in some way as places for asylum seekers. of heat had not come to Europe by their own will as asylum seekers, they presented themselves as involuntary guests, as vegetative companions, as it were, of the Indian homeboys and the Moorish boys, with turbans, of the colonial idyll, by those who served ladies with lady’s tea in the rich Northwest. Nevertheless, the significance of the overpass is very much connected with the imperial botany. Above all, the phenomenon of glazed-in warmth is not allowed to be consigned to the winter gardens of pleasure, princely and great bourgeois, who, with their flower temples and pineapple conservatories, their greenhouses of oranges and grapefruits, turn to the century XVII and XVIII.

With its greenhouses we will see the Europeans begin a whole series of experiments with botanical, cultural and climatic initiatives of globalization. Now the ideas of air-conditioned artificial islands were linked to the Utopian urban area. The architects of the crystal houses experimented with their constructive potentials with the new technique of iron and glass in the typical sense of shop windows and places for exhibitions. The English greenhouse architect Joseph Paxton, with the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park - London, was the largest built-up space in the world at the time. A building to hold exhibitors together with visitors and with a touch of winter garden at its highest. Later it would serve as an internalized popular park (a universal temple). For the education of the masses of people and for moments of fun and recreation. A precisely air-conditioned place so that one could live there forever. The interesting thing is that several other buildings of the same type were elevated in projects or some that were not realized, but with them the idea of ​​Walter Benjamin in considering London (and not Paris) as the capital of the nineteenth century was put into practice. With these greenhouses we would have a key to understanding the "inner principle" they carried. In century XIX diverse biologists, architects, manufacturers will be interested in the practice of artificial climatic islands. They were the pioneers of a design that reconciled technology of cultivation, conformation of space and atmospheric control of the space. This design goes into the entire 20th and 21st century with current climate policies and concerns about the universal climate. More recently but following the same model of the modern life sciences and ecosystem investigations have emerged interests of concentrating biosphere sets in systems of experimental isolation. Sloterdik talks about: Biosphere 2 project. An inner artificiality was seen in this building climate is more than a greenhouse. It is a ground exercise for the construction of absolute greenhouses in space. Biosphere 2 is an experiment of isolation and inclusion of a pronounced character of artwork reconciled with the first attempts at colonization of the Moon and Mars.

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 272):

What fundamentally differentiates the management of the hermetism of Biosphere 2 from that of other greenhouses is the total control of the root medium, that is to say, of the soil, that in other parts only breaks, adapts and, if necessary, enriches, while here goes including the hermetic construction itself. The entire installation rises on a concrete floor, covered in its entire length with Alleghanis solitudes, stainless and non-corrosible steel plates, with particular attention being given to the punctual compactness of the ground plane joining and the vertical elements of the envelope crystal […]. In Biosphere 2 the principle of inversion of the environment can be observed to be duplicated, because not only does it include the soil and, consequently, the integral encapsulation of a world of life in a surrounding form; In addition, the installation is divided into a biosphere and a technosphere, so that the biosphere scope is continually dependent on previous technospheric yields, mainly energy supply, closed circulation water management, atmosphere management and innumerable implants electronics. With regard to the motivation for inclusion in Biosphere 2, it is clear that it is a model island world: it was the ambition of its builders to introduce a miniature of the natural biosphere variety, largely ignoring the fauna, but they refashioned five primary types of landscapes or biomes: the rain forest, the savannah, the swamp, the sea and the desert. To these autonomous models of living space were added vital living spaces, a landscape of agriculture and gardening, as well as a colony of citizens, represented by a habitable area of ​​2,600 square meters for the first eight "biosferians", which since 1991 underwent a two-year imprisonment experiment valued as a total failure.

Isolation and inclusion failed to converge in Biosphere 2, it was actually attempted an extraterrestrial repetition round of terrestrial living conditions. The major design error according to Sloterdijk was that design was still an enigma, but then it became clear that the construction was attempting a full simulation of an autonomous and humanly inhabitable biosphere usable in conditions of space vacuum. The relative island was designed as a construction of an absolute island. Despite the criticism Biosphere 2 anticipates an experiment of atmospheric and biospheric isolation and should be understood as a future terrestrial policy of biospheres.


(Eduardo Rocha) #17

References:

[1] CUNHA, Marcus Vinicius da. John Dewey – A Utopia Democrática (The Democratic Utopia) . Rio de Janeiro: DP&A Editora, 2001, pp. 31-34.

[2] SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas II: Globos (MacroesferologĂ­a) . TraducciĂłn de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2004, p. 774.

[3] SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas III: Espumas (EsferologĂ­a Plural) . TraducciĂłn de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, p. 35. The closest discipline to this heterodox theory of culture and civilization can be found for the time being in manned astronomy, for nowhere is it so radically questioned by the technical conditions of the possibility of human existence in life-sustaining capsules.

[4] NIETZSCHE, Friedrich Wilhelm. A Gaia Ciência (The Gaia Science). Tradução: Paulo César de Souza. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2001, p. 147, § 124. “On the horizon of infinity”: We leave the mainland and we embark! We burned the bridge - still more, we cut every tie with the land that was left behind! Now be careful, little boat! Next to you is the ocean, it is true that it does not always roar, and sometimes stretches like silk and gold and daydream of kindness. But there will come times when you will realize that it is infinite and that there is nothing more terrible than infinity. Oh, poor bird that felt free and now it hits the walls of that cage! Woe to you, if you are afflicted with longing for the earth, as if there had been more freedom there - and there is no more "land"!

[5] We must remember that under no weight conditions there is spontaneous convection, air mass movement due to differences in weight between normal air and exhaled air, so that only artificial air circulation can prevent the excessive concentration of CO2 and heat in the breathing effort close to the body of the astronauts. Without artificial air circulation the astronauts would stay in a capsule without having to breathe the air. It is also worth remembering that in the current international space station is of utmost importance the physical activity of the astronauts to prevent and help them to emptiness and the situation of microgravity. In “zero gravity,” the fluids in your legs and the lower part of your body move toward your head. Many astronauts say they feel the face more swollen. With the exception of an occasional headache and congestion, astronauts do not feel bothered by this fluid change. Some astronauts go dizzy and have a sick stomach during the first few days of a space flight as they become accustomed to zero gravity. After a few days, almost everyone becomes accustomed to zero gravity and has an exercise routine, otherwise if you do not exercise, your bones and muscles will weaken. During his return to Earth, the astronaut needs to get accustomed to gravity again which sometimes makes the person dizzy and not infrequently with fainting.


(Eduardo Rocha) #18

FIGURES:

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Astronaut Mark Lee. Space Shuttle Discovery (270 km under ocean).

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Your Windless Arrangement. Olafur Eliasson. (1997).

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Botanical Garden. Curitiba – Brazil.

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Biosphere 2.

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The Galapagos Archipelago.


Astronaut Scott Tingler takes care of growing plants within the Veggie (Vegan) facility in support of space research botany. The samples will be analyzed by NASA scientists at the University of Wisconsin. (2018).

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The bathroom. Llya Kabakov. The installation becomes a powerful manifestation of contemporary art to put in space the submergent observations and situations as a whole. The figure above was seen as the invitation or the call for the entry of the observer in the situation represented, only being able to assume an installation already in the present. These are commotions or disorders of normal viewing conditions. The traditional art exhibition displayed magnificent objects, framed, suspended or placed on pedestals that are no longer necessary elements. Contemporary men are in the scope of what is banal and banal, entering into the work of the other, dwelling in the owner’s house, an immersion like jumping into the pool. Another interesting element is that contemporary art is defined by Warhol and Danto as an end of the history of art. This is because art presents itself as a typically philosophical activity where the beautiful and ugly or aesthetic elements were left behind. Art today invites your observer to ask the question, “What is this?” Or “what is the meaning?” And to answer this, we must live the work of the other beyond the frame entering into the work as being submerged in experience. The ready-mades came to follow this path wanting to know first what the meaning of what was exposed in galleries than properly “the beautiful” or “aesthetic.” Everything happens, according to the scene of the Foutain or Air of Paris of Marcel Duchamp and of the Brillo Boxes of Andy Warhol. It was precisely for these feats that the beautiful, which was traditionally the qualifier that could give initial support for something to be a work of art, was no longer a criterion. The twentieth century saw the art go to one side and the beautiful to another. It was this divorce that brought the question “what is art?” To the stage. This question fell under the purview of the philosophers of art, not the artists. But then, suddenly, the works of art themselves, detached from the old criterion (the beautiful), by the function of questioning art, showed that they could dispense with philosophers. Now, they, the works themselves, philosophized.

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Dymaxion House (Eye of Fly). Buckminster Fuller. The eye was movable and portable, could be moved from one place to another without having any complex adjustment.

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Geodetic domes.

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Amazon Biosfera. Design by the American company Amazon. (Seattle - EUA).


Smoke inside a bubble.

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Airtecture Hall. Air filled roof beams and Y-shaped side supports, material made of vitroflex coating. Axel Thallemer. (1996).

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Easy-K de Kenneth Snelson. Image taken from Snelson (2004).

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Foaming Tensegrity. I think these architectures are related to the objective spirit (Hegel) to be materialized culture. “Artificial Intelligence” is a hybrid term for the familiar phenomenon that in artifacts (tools, music works and institutions), the intentions of producers survive almost independently of their products. This is precisely what was expressed in Hegel’s concept of objective spirit. What is objective is the intelligence invested in tools, works and institutions through their producers, who later separated from them to be absorbed and applied by other intelligences (subjective spirit, students, users). The spheres of artificial intelligence and intelligent artificiality of their own accord develop an expansionist constitution that has increasingly permeated all aspects of existence. In this sense, existence in the technical world is characterized by always artificiality. Modern and postmodern human beings not only live in the “house of Being” (as Heidegger called language) but increasingly in the abode of a techno-sphere (a step towards acclimatization). A transmission from one generation to another. If men die, the forms and laws remain. By seeing things in this way, things, customs or institutions are a more lasting, real, objective and necessary dimension than the human beings who must coexist according to them. In a recent interview with Michel Temer, the current president of Brazil talking about the crisis said: "People pass. I’ll pass, but institutions stay. " This faith in punctuality or a certain mode of operation reflects the metaphysical conviction that behind every fact there is a prescription and behind each prescription, the seal of a higher truth. The man when he calls the lady for the dance extends the right arm, the train has a time of arrival and departure, some write from left to right others from right to left or the men when giving the hand to the women put them on their side right. The Stoics would summarize that belief in the power of rules in the thesis that being and being in order mean the same. Or even Wittgenstein in saying that “culture is a rule of order or presupposes a rule of order.”

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Cristal Palace. Hyde Park. Londron.

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Galaxies that form along filaments, like droplets along the chain of a spider’s web. Premier Art Scene. Tomas Saraceneo (2009).


(Eduardo Rocha) #19

As it was missing a part here goes. The third type of islands are the “anthropogenic islands” reminiscent of Sloterdijk’s essay on the “Rules for the Human Park”. Here the author refers to this type of island, targeting what Luhmann, others called “autopoesis”. Sloterdijk is referring to the way of generating and developing life, especially human life, in specially prepared contexts. In the anthropogenic islands are the human factors that we must consider as variables. It tries to understand humans and how they become néiotas or islets. Which means the same as living beings that inhabit islands become humans due mainly to the effect of their isolation.
Man is going to change through genetic engineering intervention and will change through fusion with the machine and the computer, as it has already changed through humanistic education now coming to an end. Every time that passes, the division of men and women is ceasing to exist, and I say physically. The wonder woman herself in her recent film and vision as people see today, give more and more traits of a transvestite in pop culture. Women want to be like transvestites, or at least the silhouette of a muscular body. Just as one day there will also be no more male and female. Men are all hermaphrodites. The development of the gonads is part of the chromosomal determination of sex, that is, it comes from a genetic charge, transmitted from generation to generation. In mammals in general, the XY system of determination is used. Both sexes begin with a bipotent, that is, undifferentiated gonad. This is a very peculiar situation, since, in general, organs have only one possible destination, even in a primary state. The rudimentary gonad appears close to the rudimentary kidneys at the beginning of development (in the fourth week in humans) and remains so for a long period (up to the seventh week in humans). The development occurs from the intermediate mesoderm, there being proliferation of cells in the so-called genital crest, which will give rise to the somatic part of the gonads, surrounding the germinative cells, that will migrate until that region. The bipotent gonad, then, needs to differentiate, from the genotype of the individual. It is not the hormones that influence the differentiation of the gonads, but the genetic component. The already differentiated gonad will then produce hormones that will aid in the correct functioning of the organ.

Our youth have already stated that they no longer love men and women, but people. And soon robots will be included as well as animals, especially dogs (man’s best friend). The idea of ​​bisexual people will end as much as the idea of ​​tastes “for boy” and “for girl” are over. In the seventies they invented “unisessex”, today we know that this concept disappeared in favor of “plurissex”, as we have the genderless. Or in the “new standard” of Playboy or other magazines in calling athletes to pose naked. But to pose naked brutally, as an athlete himself (Serena Williams, Ronda Rousey, Michelle Waterson, A. J. Andrews). As well as the growing crossfit sport and its athletes. To understand this is to understand the current logic of capitalism and even for market issues (vegan market, fitness, clean standard, aesthetics, plastic clinics, skin care, etc.). If in politics the right and the left understood Sloterdijk and his notion of antropotecnic, much of the current gender discussion would come out of this conversation we are in, the “Gender Ideology.” People do not have to be saying for didactic purposes, that gender is a social construction, a construction of social identity (public aspect), while sexual desire is something of the body, without participation of the rational will, and that comes to us nature. But the fact is that with the notion of antropotecnic we would not have to do this separation. Man is the one who created the division between natural (artificial) and cultural and when this very division persecutes to him we do not know what to do, it incorporates the natural and the artificial. There will be no turning back. The antropotecnic show us that the Universe has techniques of construction of an anthropo. And we should no longer think whether man is a “social construction” or an animal of nature. But understand that it is done by means of antropotecnics. Techniques of construction of an anthropos and not of two more common genera, man and woman. The so-called “man” has a way of doing it, both in the field of phylogenesis and in ontogenesis, which is his own. In this way, engineering that penetrates the human body is not external to us, to our historical thread as a social group, but only one more degree of our evolution, one more topic within the technical topics and antropotecnics. But it should be noted, too, that for some time now, at least in the United States, specialized medical clinics have been doing our childcare, pedagogy and genetic engineering and robotics are not separate things from our work of political organization, of biopolitics, we might say, with Foucault or Agamben.

Recently in Brazil a volleyball player has become a player. Rodrigo, after becoming Tiffany, would he have to stop playing volleyball? She became first trans woman to play an official match of the Super League. Such a request should lead Tiffany to no longer practice what she was taught as a human being, not even to read and write, not even to speak. The divisions “masculine” and “feminine”, as sports categories, are being changed as everything that concerns the human body, the man, has been altered. The whole point of “eugenics” is that it is made liberal in America and cannot be done so quietly in Germany and Europe for obvious reasons of Nazism. The truth is that this is man’s own (improvements in every way) ranging from supplements, diets, anabolics, exercises, skin products, treatments with fish skin against burns, dental implants, sex change, hormonal treatments, makeup, plastic surgeries, prostheses, future elimination of diseases, etc. Although the word “eugenics” carries an extremely negative modern meaning, Sloterdijk does not speak properly of “eugenics”, but of “tradition” of Heidegger’s tradition of “prostheses” and “antropotecnics”, and how these combinations can invent an anthropo (See the movie Netflix: The Titan - 2018). Is there anyone who still believes that man is “natural”? We should abandon these descriptions of ourselves. “Masculine” and “feminine”, we should think that antropotecnics create an “anthropo”, that is, several techniques are performed so that an “anhopo” (anthropo-technique) arises, but not as only “masculine” and “feminine.” This term used by Peter Sloterdijk in the work Rules for the Human Park, whose meaning deepens make the articulator of the axis of this history around the practices of self-production of man through sustained exercises (self-demands: acrobatics and performance or now more clearly the states of tension spoken of earlier) and of work on oneself (Foucault’s self-care).

Sloterdijk (2006, p. 275):

According to the current consensus of paleontologists, the African savannah is the area in which the hominization of an ancient species of arboreal monkey was carried out; as a consequence, this region must be described in such a way that it can be understood as the repressed element-environment of the anthropogenic islands, which have made it nomadic life. From this point of view, this grass steppe appears as the sea from which the anthropoids emerge. Thus, the primary event of protohistory, the genesis of the human being, contains, above all, a topological mystery. In the appearance of the human being the place has to explain the fact, the scene of the event provides the key to what happened in it.

The human being can only be understood as the collective of primates, incubators of human beings, as units of an insular type, and that we see in human beings generated in the place all the vectors of the creationist movements that were developing, maturing and entering into progress for their ability to speak, work and think. Isolation (insulation) by inclusion of groups or by creative self-isolation of distance. The primitive coexistence of hominids with their peers and with the others prepares the emergence of man. Sloterdijk mentions that it is as if for millions of years the mainland had been shaken by a gigantic tsunami of great duration and the consequence of this is the emergence of several and several anthropophagic islands. Archipelagos composed of nomadic hordes of primates, and in them, there was the formation of configured interior climates of the human being. From some of these groups the lines of the later sapiens in which the present species continues are developed. This was the main beginning of homo sapiens self-incubation coexistence. The immunity situation in the anthropogenic islands are interior architectures and effectively the cause of a synergy of the animal construction of nests and the human functioning in camps. This development has one day stimulated the demands of spaces, now human, which have been crystallized in a broad way as the constructions of huts, towns, cities, and so on. The human fact is made in the greenhouse and does not have walls, roofs, but in principle, in their own bodies as walls of proximity and roofs of solidarity. Sloterdijk will then develop an anthroposphere as a nine-dimensional space (topoi), that’s no longer dividing man between nature and culture or "artificial" and "natural." Now man is a hybrid of technique (antropotecnics). Among the nine dimensions we have:

I - The Chirotope. That includes the scope of action of human hands. That which is before them and their disposition. The environment is now taken as perspective with the manipulation of the environment and objects. We can think of branches, stones, sand, trees and for the launch of them (and consequently the man himself) and the practical effects of the launching (causality linked to predictability) blows, cuts, tools (hands and chiropractic work). The limits and the opening of the world widen. The first form of theory, as a prior look at the launch. Existential understanding as anticipation and projection of possibilities of success and the first conception of truth as success (and falsity as error). The launch is also, according to Sloterdijk, in the source of the proposition (that is, of conjunction and disjunction), as synthesis of stone (subject), release (copula) and prey (object). Therefore, it gives rise to the human metaphysical world, the world "of the truth of being", which, in this sense, is protected in the animality constitutive of a primordial relation of the anthropogenic collective with its potential prey.

Heidegger’s ontological difference extends to the limits of the clearing space of the clearing: in the prominence between the horizon as a highlighted background of the action towards the prey, that is, to the being, the notion of being is constructed, as the one who “designates and encompasses the ever-open substance [offenliegende] and veiled [verborgene], partially attainable but ultimately unreachable, which is common to all things.” The alletheia, that is, the truth, as revelation of the being in the totality opposed to an ever-constant background of lethé, concealment and constitutive mystery, starts to take effect from this dynamic between the target and the bottom, between the patent and the latent, what is inside the human world and the outer horizon of possibilities. As we saw in Spheres II - Globes, Heidegger’s tradition in saying that technique is a kind of “unveiling” or unpacking. " In some ways “unpacking” is a form of, say, clarifying the concealed and creating a representational of it. This objectification of the entity is consummated in a re-presentation that seeks to bring every being before itself, in such a way that the calculating man can assure itself of the being, that is, to be sure of it. Therefore, there is only science in the form of research when, and only when, truth becomes the certainty of representation. Descartes’s metaphysics defines, for the first time, the entity as objectivity of representation and truth as the certainty of representation. In this way, it implies, from the spatiality, a notion of temporality: the horizon, the unreachable, is original time, mythical, and at the same time, future, future, that which, unsaid, always remains to be said. Here the sloterdijkian prehuman acquires ontological consistency, in the Heideggerian sense of the term.

II - The Fonotopo. That serves for the vocal campaign or the vocal signal so that the coexistent listen to each other, talk to each other. One can now use orders from one to another and inspire one another (the sound and the reading silences). III - The Uterotope or hysterotope. Here we have broadly a generalization of a situation of biomechanics of the maternal scope and for pregnancy as production of a centripetal force that even in a macro sense will be experienced by the individuals in them as a feeling of belonging and common existential fluid (can be understood as a dyad seen in Spheres I-Bubbles). Hannah Arent in Human Condition joined contributing with Heidegger to give the man’s perception of death and finitude with his birth rate. IV - The Thermotope. That which integrates the group as the original recipient of the benefits of the distribution of domestic effects (domestication), which represent the matrix of all experiences of comfort (mime) and because of which the homeland is sweet. V - The Erotopo. That which organizes the group as the place of the primary erotic energies of transference and places the human under stress as a jealous domain (love and eroticism). It is important to note that the emergence of jealousy, specific to the human species, was extremely important to the genesis of humans, for humans are mimetic animals that have always observed what other humans do, attentively and jealously, in fact, even imitating those who behave successfully as if they did not observe what others were doing). VI - The Ergotopo or falotopo. In which a paternal or priestly force of definition has effects throughout the group. It generates a convenience and a spirit of communitarianism and cooperation in communities founded on necessity and with division of labor functions (exercises and caring for each other). VII - Alethotopo or mnemotopo. What for him the apprentice group constitutes as guardian of their continuity of experience and stands as a trunk of truth with its claim to validity and its own risk of falsification (the struggles for knowing and knowing). VIII - Thanatotopo or theotopo. What they offer to the ancestors, the dead, the spirits and the group gods a space for revelations or a semiotic keyboard for meaningful manifestations. IX - The Nomotopo. What creates a sticky element among the coexistent, a bond of those who are close by “customs,” by sharing work and unique experiences.

And with its exchange of exchanges of interactions it maintains cooperation and can generate an imaginary tensegrity, a social architecture with mutual expectations, prizes and resistances (a first constitution). We will speak briefly about all of them in an attempt to condense and facilitate the understanding of antropotecnics in Sloterdijk’s spherology. Of the nine what most caught my attention were I - The Chirotope, II - The Fonotopo, VIII - Thanatotopo or theotopo and IX - The Nomotopo. The first constitutional theory. Each group generates its enclosure and makes a spontaneous isolation as a cultural unit by its way of living or its normative constitution. In these closures there are perspectives of different matrices and things like customs, cultures, law, laws, sounds, rules, habits and institutions. All the human insulation groups that are appearing in the generational process participate in a not-well-known secret of stabilization. They generate themselves and a standards architecture that shows enough about the torseness resistance of the personality so that users recognize it as a valid law. Something as a first statute that is binding and a law of constrictive legal reality. Well at the end of this topic Sloterdijk says that later this would give rise to sites larger than the cell with container. Contiguous islands in medium or larger structures such as conventions, parties, companies, associations, shareholder meetings, movie theater, religious community, trade unions, a national assembly, club, condominium, parking lot must be in the form of long lasting symbiosis. A life of co-isolation or covenant. The foams are co-isolated, side by side in a kind of neighborhood, one block, but inaccessible to each other. There are spatial multiplicities and each of these multiplicities, it is self-referential where they cannot assimilate the exteriority of the neighbor. Although the neighbor is glued, stacked, heaped, he is isolated and separated. A foam is not a mass. The mass does not breathe, it does not oxygenate, it does not allow air, nor the format of the one as a cell.

With this theoretical development, then, what should we keep in mind is up to where man can reach? Man is the being of asceticism, of overcoming and this process will generate the monstrous yes.


(Eduardo Rocha) #20

Man is going to change through genetic engineering intervention and will change through fusion with the machine and the computer, as it has already changed through humanistic education now coming to an end. Every time that passes, the division of men and women is ceasing to exist, and I say physically. The wonder woman herself in her recent film and vision as people see today, give more and more traits of a transvestite in pop culture. Women want to be like transvestites, or at least the silhouette of a muscular body. Just as one day there will also be no more male and female. Men are all hermaphrodites. The development of the gonads is part of the chromosomal determination of sex, that is, it comes from a genetic charge, transmitted from generation to generation. In mammals in general, the XY system of determination is used. Both sexes begin with a bipotent, that is, undifferentiated gonad. This is a very peculiar situation, since, in general, organs have only one possible destination, even in a primary state. The rudimentary gonad appears close to the rudimentary kidneys at the beginning of development (in the fourth week in humans) and remains so for a long period (up to the seventh week in humans). The development occurs from the intermediate mesoderm, there being proliferation of cells in the so-called genital crest, which will give rise to the somatic part of the gonads, surrounding the germinative cells, that will migrate until that region. The bipotent gonad, then, needs to differentiate, from the genotype of the individual. It is not the hormones that influence the differentiation of the gonads, but the genetic component. The already differentiated gonad will then produce hormones that will aid in the correct functioning of the organ.

Our youth have already stated that they no longer love men and women, but people. And soon robots will be included as well as animals, especially dogs (man’s best friend). The idea of ​​bisexual people will end as much as the idea of ​​tastes “for boy” and “for girl” are over. In the seventies they invented “unisessex”, today we know that this concept disappeared in favor of “plurissex”, as we have the genderless. Or in the “new standard” of Playboy or other magazines in calling athletes to pose naked. But to pose naked brutally, as an athlete himself (Serena Williams, Ronda Rousey, Michelle Waterson, A. J. Andrews). As well as the growing crossfit sport and its athletes. To understand this is to understand the current logic of capitalism and even for market issues (vegan market, fitness, clean standard, aesthetics, plastic clinics, skin care, etc.). If in politics the right and the left understood Sloterdijk and his notion of antropotecnic, much of the current gender discussion would come out of this conversation we are in, the “Gender Ideology.” People do not have to be saying for didactic purposes, that gender is a social construction, a construction of social identity (public aspect), while sexual desire is something of the body, without participation of the rational will, and that comes to us nature. But the fact is that with the notion of antropotecnic we would not have to do this separation. Man is the one who created the division between natural (artificial) and cultural and when this very division persecutes to him we do not know what to do, it incorporates the natural and the artificial. There will be no turning back. The antropotecnic show us that the Universe has techniques of construction of an anthropo. And we should no longer think whether man is a “social construction” or an animal of nature. But understand that it is done by means of antropotecnics. Techniques of construction of an anthropos and not of two more common genera, man and woman. The so-called “man” has a way of doing it, both in the field of phylogenesis and in ontogenesis, which is his own. In this way, engineering that penetrates the human body is not external to us, to our historical thread as a social group, but only one more degree of our evolution, one more topic within the technical topics and antropotecnics. But it should be noted, too, that for some time now, at least in the United States, specialized medical clinics have been doing our childcare, pedagogy and genetic engineering and robotics are not separate things from our work of political organization, of biopolitics, we might say, with Foucault or Agamben.

Recently in Brazil a volleyball player has become a player. Rodrigo, after becoming Tiffany, would he have to stop playing volleyball? She became first trans woman to play an official match of the Super League. Such a request should lead Tiffany to no longer practice what she was taught as a human being, not even to read and write, not even to speak. The divisions “masculine” and “feminine”, as sports categories, are being changed as everything that concerns the human body, the man, has been altered. The whole point of “eugenics” is that it is made liberal in America and cannot be done so quietly in Germany and Europe for obvious reasons of Nazism. The truth is that this is man’s own (improvements in every way) ranging from supplements, diets, anabolics, exercises, skin products, treatments with fish skin against burns, dental implants, sex change, hormonal treatments, makeup, plastic surgeries, prostheses, future elimination of diseases, etc. Although the word “eugenics” carries an extremely negative modern meaning, Sloterdijk does not speak properly of “eugenics”, but of “tradition” of Heidegger’s tradition of “prostheses” and “antropotecnics”, and how these combinations can invent an anthropo (See the movie Netflix: The Titan - 2018). Is there anyone who still believes that man is “natural”? We should abandon these descriptions of ourselves. “Masculine” and “feminine”, we should think that antropotecnics create an “anthropo”, that is, several techniques are performed so that an “anhopo” (anthropo-technique) arises, but not as only “masculine” and “feminine.” This term used by Peter Sloterdijk in the work Rules for the Human Park, whose meaning deepens make the articulator of the axis of this history around the practices of self-production of man through sustained exercises (self-demands: acrobatics and performance or now more clearly the states of tension spoken of earlier) and of work on oneself (Foucault’s self-care).
Sloterdijk’s notions here seemed to me to be close with Ortega y Gasset when he speaks of two salient features of every technique, one that diminishes, sometimes almost eliminates, the effort imposed by the circumstance and that succeeds in reforming it, reacting against it and forcing it to adopt new forms that favor man. In this way, the concept of “technique” points to the ability, competence, training, acrobatics, practice, and ability men achieve to construct a “second nature.” Until then, the technique was taken as what was accessory to the human and not as what is already human. This was only a serious thesis taken more recently with Peter Sloterdijk. Anthropotechnics is the human procedure that causes humans to generate humans. Man is a man because he has created and developed techniques for doing it. We are creators of worlds, of interior spaces or interior designer (Dasein ist Designer), that allows to create the “inside” and that avoids making the lost man in the “outside”.

Ortega y Gasset (1963, p. 16):

It is, therefore, a fundamental error to believe that man is but an animal causally endowed with technical talent, or in other words, that if an animal were to magically add the technical gift, we would have no more man. The truth is the opposite, because man has a very different task than that of the animal, an extraneous task, he cannot dedicate his energies like that to satisfy his elemental needs, since, of course, he must erase them in that order in order to be with them in the unlikely task of realizing their being in the world. This is why man begins when technique begins. The width, smaller or larger, which opens in nature is the alveolus where it can house its eccentric being. That is why I insisted yesterday that the meaning and cause of the technique are outside of it; that is to say: in the work that man gives to his available energies, released by that. The initial mission of the technique is this; give a franchise to the man to be able to dedicate himself to being himself. The ancients divided life into two zones: one, which they called otium, idleness, which is not the negation of doing, but to occupy itself in being the human of man, which they interpreted as command, organization, social intercourse, Art. The other zone, full of effort to satisfy the elementary needs, everything that made that otium possible, called it nec-otium, perfectly marking the negative character it has for man. Instead of living at random and dissipating your effort, you need to act according to plan to gain security in your clash with natural demands and master them with maximum yield. This is his technical doing before doing what God wants of the animal, the bird of the good God, for example. All the human activities that especially received or deserve the name of techniques are nothing but specifications, concretions of this general character of self-fabrication proper to our living. If our existence were not already from the beginning the force of constructing with the material of the nature the pretense extra natural that is the man, none of these techniques would exist. The absolute fact, the pure phenomenon of the universe which is the technique, can only take place in this strange, pathetic, dramatic metaphysical combination of two heterogeneous entities - man and the world - being obliged to unify themselves, so that one of them, man, manages to insert his extramundane being into the other, which is precisely the world. This problem, almost an engineer, is human existence.

To live every man does many things, however, to live well it is necessary to adapt the environment to the will of the subject. As he realizes in the world, man discovers that this is an intricate network around him. It is enough that the profile of well-being which is sketched out before the man changes substantially a little, that the idea of ​​life, from which and for which man does everything that he does, undergoes a mutation of some magnitude, so that the traditional technique will shatter, disintegrate and take other directions.

In this sense, Ortega y Gasset (1963, pp. 7-8):

Man has no commitment to be in the world. In what has commitment is to be well. Only this seems necessary to him and everything else is necessity only to the extent that it makes possible the well-being. Therefore, for man only the objectively superfluous is necessary. This will be considered paradoxical, but it is the true truth. Biologically objective needs are not, per se, necessities for him. When it is stuck to them it refuses to satisfy them and prefers to succumb. They only become necessities when they appear as conditions of "being in the world", which in turn is only necessary in a subjective way; namely, because it makes possible the "well-being in the world" and the superfluity. Hence it follows that even what is objectively necessary is only for man when it is referred to superfluity. There is no doubt: man is an animal for which only the superfluous is necessary. Apparently, it will seem to you a little strange and worthless than a phrase, but if you reconsider the question you will see how by themselves you inevitably come to it. And this is essential to understanding the technique. The technique is the production of the superfluous: today and in the Paleolithic era. It is certainly the means to meet human needs. Now we can accept this formula that we repelled yesterday because now we know that human needs are objectively superfluous and that they only become necessities for those who need well-being and for those who live it is essentially to live well. This is why the animal is technical: it is content with living and with the objectively necessary for simple existence. From the point of view of simple existence, the animal is unsurpassed and does not need the technique. But man is man because for him to exist means immediately and always well-being; so, it is the technical nativity creator of the superfluous. Man, technique, and well-being are ultimately synonymous. Another thing is to ignore the tremendous sense of technique: its significance as an absolute fact in the universe. If the technique consisted only in one of its parts - in solving more comfortably the same needs that integrate the life of the animal and in the same sense that they can be for this one - we would have one among the strange stranger in the universe: we would have two systems of acts - instincts of the animal and the technicians of man - who, being so heterogeneous, would nonetheless serve the same purpose: to sustain in the world organic being. Because the case is that the animal fits perfectly with its system, that is, that it is not a defective system, in principle. It is neither more nor less defective than that of man. Everything is clarified, on the contrary, if it is noticed that the purposes are different: on the one hand, to serve the organic life, which is adaptation of the subject to the environment, simple being in nature. On the other, to serve the good life, to the well-being, that implies adaptation of means to the will of the subject. Let us therefore note that human needs are only due to well-being. We can then only ascertain what those are if we find out what it is that man understands by his well-being. And this complicates things formidably. Because … you will know everything that man understood, understood or understood for well-being, for need of necessities, for the only necessary thing that Jesus spoke to Martha and Mary (Mary, the true technique for Jesus). For Pompey it was not necessary to live, but it was necessary to navigate, renewing the motto of the milieia society of the aeinautai - the eternal navigators - to whom Tales belonged, creators of a new daring commerce, a new bold policy, the Western science. There is the fakir, the ascetic, on one side; the sensual, the glutton, on the other.

Continues Ortega y Gasset says (2009, pp. 47-49):

Man, not only economically, but metaphysically, has to earn a living […]. And so, it is because the fundamental thing in life is that it is not made of things, but it is one to do, one to do to be in agreement with oneself. Because of the difficulties it points out and what happens to us, life is drama. Body and soul are things, and I am not a thing, but a drama, a struggle to get to be what I have to be.

Technique is the concretization of the process of fabrication of human life. She is not something out. It will engender and carry out the task that is life. Although Ortega y Gasset says that "to the technical act, but that effort to save effort is what inspires the technique", by the readings made here on Sloterdijk the effort of itself will culminate in self-overcoming (with the vertical tensions already mentioned). In this way, the technique does not aim to save effort, but the technique is a product of the effort. Of the repetition of man by man. From the effort to go further.

Ortega y Gasset ends (1963, pp. 11-12):

And here is how the meditation on technique makes us bump into it, as with the lump in a fruit, with the rare mystery of man’s being. Because this is a forced entity, if it wants to exist, to exist in nature, submerged in it; It’s an animal. Zoologically, life means all that needs to be done to sustain oneself in nature. But man commands them to keep this life to a minimum, not to have to do what the animal has to do. In the time that the overcoming of his animal life leaves, man dedicates himself to a series of non-biological tasks, which are not imposed by nature, which he invents for himself. And precisely to this invented life, invented as if inventing a novel or a play, is what man calls human life, well-being. Human life, therefore, transcends from the natural reality, is not given to it as it is given to the falling stone and to the animal the rigid repertoire of its organic acts - to eat, to escape, to nest, etc. - Otherwise man does it, and this doing his own life begins by being the invention of it. As? Was human life then in its specific dimension … a work of imagination? Is the man a kind of novelist of himself who forges the fantastic figure of a character with his unreal kind of occupations and that to achieve it does everything he does, that is, is a technician?

In a certain way we must keep in mind a turning from failing to see man as being poor, lacking or “sick by nature.” To take a new ontology that goes beyond economic or political aspects, making lack a kind of “negative essence”, something like a being of scarcity. The human essence would be in this context, its subjectivity. A whole conservative tradition founded on the deficit man. The determination of homo pauper as anthropology of needs. Conservative moods and a lightening paralysis of things have built the deeply poor animal as an active and reflective human being in their culture. Adopting Sloterdijk’s position in the sense similar to that of Ortega y Gasset who came to an interesting conclusion, he says: “Man is an animal for which only the superfluous is necessary.” For him, the man, thanks to his technical present, makes him always around what he needs, then creates a new, more favorable circumstance, segregates, so to speak, a nature that adapts nature to his needs. they are finalized beings. We are unfinished sapiens, we are almost born as an abortion and the very condition of bipeds is not ours, we have to conquer standing up by the effort and vertical vector that pulls us up and towards the Gods Sloterdijk maintained a fundamental thesis to reflect on technology: the technique is the opposite of the adaptation of the subject to the environment, since it is the adaptation of the medium to the subject (as already said in the initial part on the capsules and insulations - absolute islands and atmoterrorism). That would be enough to make us suspect that it is a movement in the opposite direction of all biological factors, or almost all of them better saying. A modern essence manifests itself in the task of separating technically accurate immunity systems from previously vaguely holistic immunity structures.