Insulations. For a theory of capsules, islands, and greenhouses
The next chapter on Foams will be: I - Insulations. For a theory of capsules, islands, and greenhouses (page 237-260). We have: A - Absolute Islands and B - Atmospheric Islands. I decided to share this part I in two since it is a very large and very complicated part. I understood the beginning of it, but it gets rather strange afterwards. The second part is (C - anthropogenic islands, the place where man emerges; a) Chirotope, the world at hand, b) Fonotopo, be within reach of the voice; III - The Uterotope or hysterotope, caves and incubators of the world; IV - Thermotope, space of comfort; V - The Erotopo, domain of the envy, steps of the desire; VI - Ergotopo, communities of effort and belligerent empires; VII - Alethotopo or mnemotopo, the republics of knowledge; VIII - Thantotopo or theotopo, The province of the divine; IX - The Nomotopo, the first constitutional theory and Summary (page 275-374).
Sloterdijk briefly revisits the end of the previous chapter by talking about the panoramic view of "societies" gives us the information that the whole can be nothing more than an unstable and momentary synthesis of an agglomeration, a heap of boiling or moving agglomerations. A system of alveolus and vicinity of air bubbles, this would graphically show us that "societies" are polyspherical climatic installations in both physical and psychological sense. In modernity we would see adjustments of temperatures and great inequalities in the leap of animation, immunization and level of comfort and lightness that the interior of the fields turns into psycho-semantic tensions and psycho-social themes. In this situation, the policy should be analyzed with a fluid dynamic for semantic loads and sense vectors. Social policy in the Welfare State is a struggle formalized both by new distributions of comfort opportunities and by access to more advantageous immunity technologies. We must admit that if human beings can coexist in "societies" it is because they are already bound and referred to each other in another sense (as the psychology of the construction of the interior space as we saw in Spheres - I is earlier the politics in the Spheres).
Sloterdijk (2006, pp. 232-233):
"Societies are multiplicities composed of their own spaceships, in which human beings are only able to participate thanks to their psychopical difference, which always carry them with them. Thus, to be in "society" in the typical human way, there must be a psychic capacity for coexistence. Without prior psychotropic attunement the assembled would not be reunited; or their associations would never be more than autistic congresses, comparable to groups of cooling urchins, as Schopenhauer characterized "bourgeois society." Just because there is a psychic conformation of space, in addition to communication, before social association, participation in subsequent meetings is possible. If it were otherwise, every human individual, as René Crevel said, would have to remain encapsulated in himself, "like an old prostitute, who is only a ruin to his corset." How, then, can we explain the indisputable phenomena of spiritual transmission, "the wealth of our undivided realms," the "imponderable interchange, by the real"?
According to Sloterdijk, individuals are sociable to the extent that by a kind of psychosocial exclusion they are able to move from a primitive dyadic space to the polyvalent space of social contacts (sharing coexistences that are most often symbolic: state, money, currency, language, religion, habits, ethics, customs) both new and developed, foams or enriched networks, with the inclusion of bonds without compromise. Sociability is conditioned by the fact that people hold within the limits of the measure of power and right of the sphere itself, in the consciousness precisely, that power and law do not extend to another sphere. Over all considerations so far Kant had spoken in his writings on a physics which shows that Kant’s definition of space as a possibility of being together must be replaced by a doctrine which is that being together is enabling space. While in Kant, things fill a preexisting space, best represented, and subsist in one another in the mode of reciprocal closure. In the surreal space of Sloterdijk we have a psycho and socio-spherical space, where the reunited and the clusters, precisely because of their coexistence is that they conform (make up) themselves the space. They are huddled together and form a specific psychosocial place for a way of mutual coexistence and reciprocal evocation. A great difference between the welcoming spaces of the physical conception of space of Kant and the autogenous, automotive (self-moistened) receptacles of spherology. In this way a temporal connection between generations is made present as successive coexistences. What we call “culture” are spaces integrated by geometric configurations and common patterns (Sloterdijk speaks in tensions.) What culture is to be under tension for uprights, I believe he is talking about a world reticulated with trusses, air, and other manners of materials This model can be projected and its permanence in it depends on a tensile force - the culture - tension and tensegrity in which a static like the air of a balloon under the walls is founded. I did not understand very well, but I think which relates to oval forces and an interweaving to structures), and the concept of tradition emerges as a process of collective conservation of models in time, but a conservation of form. All content is form. Therefore, atheism is an outrage to form (the spherical as we have seen). In more traditional cultures, learning acquires a sense of accommodation in its existing form. As for modern cultures, there is an openness to progressive explanations and learning means taking part in permanent model review processes. It is enough to see the “Feuerbach Theses” as an instrument to overcome the theory and practice duality, Tocqueville when he wrote “Democracy in America” and says that he meets an American sailor and asks why his country’s ships are built to last little; he responds to me without hesitation that the art of navigation is progressing so rapidly every day that the best ship would soon become almost useless if it continued its existence. Marx and Engels when they published the Communist Manifesto, where the celebrated phrase “everything that is solid breaks up in the air” was made present. At the end of that century, the nineteenth, John Dewey laid the foundations of new education, whose motto became “learning to learn.” This idea was propagated throughout the world by a partner of yours, with the significant title book “Education for a Changing Civilization,” the famous Kilpatrick.
The Brazilian philosopher Anísio Teixeira studied with him in the United States in the twenties of the twentieth century. When he returned to Brazil, he insisted on education aimed at “problem solving”, for a pedagogy transformed into social engineering. New models would especially arise the so-called “postmodernism” where many people end up using the word “deconstruction” in the wrong way. These models would come from literature and art - Salvador Dalí, Danto and Warhol and even capitalist neoliberalism  whose influences were Keynes, Karl Mannheim, Roosevelt, Eugene Debbs, Woodrow Wilson, Freire, Sanders and more recently with Nozick, Rawls and Obama, Hilary Clinton and that every learning place is a timed microsphere in the apprentice foam. Deconstruction is not demolishing or destroying or “dumping”. Deconstructing is not reordering. To deconstruct is a term of Derrida that has to do with the term “redescription” in Rorty. But redescription is not simply to describe it again or to write otherwise. Nor is it equal to the re-signifying of John Dewey’s pragmatist tradition. What Derrida did in deconstructing texts has to do with Rorty’s re-writing because they have taken seriously a real movement in the history of philosophy. Many people here in Brazil use “postmodern” almost as a curse, pejorative or even critically, but I would not particularly dare say that Lyotard is wrong, but to say that the postmodern is the end of also does not sound enough to me because Sloterdijk in No Same Boat - Essay on Hyperpolitics develops a text in this format of great narrative, still valid. But, in fact, we make large metanarratives again. We do not give them the same credit as before, but, in short, they have come back to philosophers’ interest.
Sloterdijk (1999, p. 59):
In a monotheistically conditioned culture, declaring that God is dead implies a shaking in all references and the proclamation of a new form of world. With "God", the principle of belonging to all people in the unity of a created space is extinguished. After that the calendar years take on even new meaning. In the future it will no longer suffice to place itself after Christ - another meaning for "after" hangs in the air, even for those who did not take the age of the Lord so seriously. If the son died, then the father would not last too long; as soon as the father followed his son in death, people stood side by side as orphaned pluralities in a monstrous world landscape - presently ordained in more than 190 nations, in which about 5,100 languages are spoken (in a more restricted count indicates two thousand) and six billion people - with no name or common denominator, without knowing if in the absence of a collective creator a collective work can still be defined. Post modernity is the era of the "after God", and the post-classical empires with their local world openings.
The Theory of Spheres is a large narrative, an almost “metanarrative.” I believe that this period, state of mind or moment has already been surpassed in the time that we are. I position myself in a sense that a certain lightness is taking the contemporary scene, work and game are merging, we have a free time for things we did not have in the 70s and 80s, just see social networks, a slight form of market, flow of people and information, the substitution of mass consumption or Fordism for the idea of the brand with the personal identity that it gives us and that the consumption itself has no more to do with the look of the other, but with our own solitary tannery, self-intensification, we had the May 68, only in a world of non-duty like ours, of individualized moral codes and almost irresponsible, we would be able to generate the word stress. No wonder it’s an American word. There are only stressed people if this is conceived because society has become pleasantly light. It seems that nothing else in our lives has weight, everything is a free time that we must do some training just see the great increase of academies, sports activities and Olympic spirit. Fashion and pathology show that our society is not making rules more flexible by reducing them, but by amplifying them. There is more lightness in the air, but not without introducing new weights, on another level of the ontological gravity game. We are dishonest. The modern and contemporary self is an almost empty self that seeks to intensify itself. It works as a minimization of the 5 senses in a “minimum I”. Advertisements always show you experimenting with perfume, chocolate, soap, food. A small moment of intensification of self, an orgasm - a small death - so that the feet step back to the ground. Here I adopt a certain Marxist tradition. If we go to Hegel, we will see that he was a thinker of freedom. Marx was never interested in freedom, but in emancipation. Hegel believed that history moves from less freedom to more freedom. In the beginning, one was free, the others obedient to the free. Then, more and more, freedom would grant more and more people. Marx also had a philosophy of history. He believed that history could be drawn from political revolutions of emancipation, until, with the supporting work of science and technique, man was completely emancipated from work. For him, progress called non-progress. In fact, a good part of humanity is increasingly emancipated from work, through technology (the work today is largely done by Instagram and smartphones). A part of mankind has control of its states to the point of being able to speak of its diminution, but in both cases, emancipation began to lose prestige in the face of a lack of liberal freedom. Especially in the twentieth century that Hobsbawm called “The Age of Extremes”. The more Marxist critique helped to speak that emancipation mattered more than individual liberty, the more the world began to see that without individual freedom as a basis, all the rest that could be conquered would be innocuous.
When we saw emancipation, we saw a sheet of loss of rights and fundamental guarantees, we saw totalitarianism, etc. Emancipated people, emancipated man, emancipated nation, emancipated genres - all this was revealed or little or deceit without being able to speak of individual freedom as an individual right, as a fundamental part of Human Rights. The strength of this premise has helped Liberalism well to become the common sense of our time. Postmodernity is the time of the “After God” (BC or AD) and the post-modern empires with their local world openings. Even if we are orphans, we reformulate another principle of belonging collectively to a modern horizon of (which had been lost): human rights, and it was not by chance that it was the former Christians who originally launched the human rights crusade. The modern man wants to feel the little pleasure of having some freedom guaranteed by political rights in his society, although he knows that if he has more money he will have to make such freedom more palpable. Small pleasures of consumption. There is a decrease in expectations, on the one hand, but on the other, there is the new expectation of never having to die. And in this case, we are already outside the realm of liberalism and Marxism, outside Hegel and Marx, and completely inserted in a new form of utopia, which only those who really understood technology and capitalism can imagine. The ideal of political philosophy or the new utopia that appears behind the clouds is no longer freedom or emancipation, but eternal life (never having to die). Netflix’s Altered Carbon series touches on small spots spoken here. We are mounting all possibilities, in many ways, of the growing studies of neuroscience of the 80’s, prosthetics, nanotechnology, brain-swapping, virtual life, transference of consciousness, health for longevity, advances in toxins and geneticism, security for exchange of organs, aesthetic clinics, plastic surgery, genetic engineering, etc., so that we can change the dreams of the nineteenth century, of emancipation from the work, through the dreams of the twenty-first century, of emancipation from the Terran heavy burden. We are living towards total lightness. The weight of lightness. The burden of relief and reoneration on relief.
If we think from the philosophical and cultural point of view, it was from the 1920s, the end of the first war, crisis of 1929, neoliberalism, theses of identity and formation of the Welfare State culminated one of the most fertile periods for Philosophy. It is enough to see the great names and works that we have with Foucault, Adorno, Thomas Kuhn, Badiou, Bruno Latour, Deleuze, Derrida, Dworkin, Butler, Sartre, Girard, Heidegger, Lasch, Rorty, Agamben, Benjamin, Freud, Lipovetsky, etc. Peter Sloterdijk develops in Volume III of the Spheres a theory of capsules, islands and greenhouses. A very innovative view on how to see the world and the emergence of man. What is under debate is the concept of "Insulierungen" (isolation), which refers, according to the author, to the processes of island formation.
Sloterdijk (2006, p. 237):
We will leave aside the usual dialectic of space, which relates the world and island as a thesis and antithesis to each other, to overcome both in a tourist-civilized synthesis. What interests us is a spherical theory of the island, with which it is possible to show as possible inner animated worlds and like analogous world pluralities form a block in the form of archipelago or rhizomes of the sea. In an early essay on the Abandoned Island Gilles Deleuze established a difference between islands that are separated from the continental terrestrial context by the action of sea water and islands that rise over the sea by the underwater activity of the land. This corresponds to the difference between insulation by erosion and isolation by creative emergence. The instance of human beings on the island occupies the philosopher to the extent that the island is nothing other than the dreams of men, and men mere consciousness of the island. This relationship is possible under a condition: that the man retract the movement that leads to the island, a movement that repeats and prolongs the impulse that produced the island. So geography and imagination would form a unity. Of course, the favorite question of the old explorers - What beings exist on the desert island? - it is only necessary to reply that there already exists the man, but a strange man, absolutely separated, absolutely creator, definitely an Idea of man, a prototype, a man who would almost be a god, a woman who would almost be a goddess, a great Amnesiac, a pure Artist, Earth and Ocean consciousness, a huge cyclone, a charming sorceress, a statue of Easter Island. This desert island creature would be the desert island itself as it imagines and reflects its primary movement. Consciousness of the earth and the ocean, this is the desert island, ready to restart the world … it is doubtful whether the individual imagination can rise by itself to this admirable identity.
So, let’s take the island as a prototype of the world in the world. A conversion in it must attribute to it the action of isolation by the liquid element of which it is surrounded by the sides. The islands are compendiums of a small continent. It is as if these non-context surfaces were a kind of “work of art” emerging from nature, which surrounds the sea as fragments of nature’s display. They are examples of worlds because they are given as micro-continents. In them they gather their own fauna, their own flora, specific human populations in an autochthonous set of customs and recipes. We can say that this work of art has its own demarcation since the isolation of an island is what makes the island what it is. It is to say the same as the frame of a painting does for a painting, excluding it from the context of the world, and as regards the peoples and groups also make the fixed borders, it is the same as regards the peoples and groups when they make the borders fixed, which is what the insulator, the sea, manages to accomplish in relation to the island.
Sloterdijk (2006, p. 239):
If islands are world prototypes it is because they are separated enough from the rest of the world context to be able to constitute an experiment on presenting a totality in reduced format. Just as the work of art, following Heidegger, presents a world, the sea circumscribes a world. The sea as an insulation makes appear a prototype of world, whose characteristic greater is the insular climate. The climates of the islands are climates of compromise, negotiated between the contributions of the land mass, along with its peculiar biosphere, and those of the open sea. It can be said, in this sense, that the true experience of the island is climatic in nature and is conditioned by the immersion of the visitor in the island atmosphere. It is not only the exceptional biotype situation, the near-greenhouse separation from the life-process on solid ground, which gives its local color to the islands, but rather the atmospheric difference brought about by the decisive definition of the island. The islands are climatic enclaves within the general air conditions; are, with a technical expression, atmotopos, which are configured following their own laws under the effect of their maritime isolation. If the islet climate is a meteorological term, the term island climate represents a theoretical-spatial and spherological concept. The first one admits as a fact the special climatic conditions of the island, the second introduces them to a genetic investigation, inciting the question by the conditions of origin and formations of the island.
Sloterdijk says that the skies can also produce islands. In the era of utopias, the launching of islands becomes a design of great political and technical creativity. We will see citizens mobilize for the so-called Modernity project with an ideal. The moderns are island designers who come from a topological declaration of human rights in which the right to isolation is joining to the right also originating the interconnection. Within this central theory, Sloterdijk distinguishes three types of islands: I - absolute islands (boats, airplanes and space stations) in which the sea is replaced as insulator by other means, from the air, then the empty space. Then II - the construction of climate islands as greenhouses where the specific atmotopic situations of the natural island are replaced by an in vitro imitation, a technical imitation of the greenhouse effect (the atmospheric islands). And finally, III - the anthropogenic islands (generation of human life). In which the coexistence of human beings, equipped with tools, with their similar ones and the others, unleash on the inhabitants a retroactive effect of incubator. A form of isolation whose model can be observed in social engineering that succeeded in imitating it with relative success and managed to reconstruct it in the modern social states as integral capsules of well-being that replaced the original incubator by the collective construction of maternal services of rent. The understanding of the islands is done by the construction of prostheses. A technical replica of the essential characteristics of the islands. Sloterdijk believes that a certain indoctrination has been imposed on us. He says that there is a certain tendency in the political sciences, psychology, humanists, theologians, sociologists and political scientists to believe that man is no older than the great civilization, for true civilization and humanity emerges from its apogee. For all those quoted, the "man" appears already in the city, in the state or the nation. This fixation is nothing more than a lie and an ideology for a basic deception. This vision erodes the unity of human evolution and disconnects the current consciousness of the chain of countless human generations with their genetic and cultural potentials. A doctrine understood as classical and modern and which is an indoctrination, of describing man as "political being." A doctrine understood as that which establishes man with a bourgeois type that for its essential realization needs libraries, parties, capitals, academies, cathedrals, etc., but wherever this ideology avenges must impose that man is the man of civilization. A way of erasing the past and prehistory. They treat man as homo pauper and that only from his constitution and maturation should he live a life in States. It obscures the vision of a fundamental event: anthropogenesis. Here comes the metaphor of the horde as an incubator, and in it to think of man as an emergence by it. Create an image that unites concept and representation. The maternal uterus as an incubator. They are ovens where the embryos are "cooked," a place of metamorphoses from which the rigid, the indeterminate, the determinate, the non-man to the man is "baked out."
Sloterdijk (1999, p. 20):
While great civilizations already consider man as existent, in order to use it for works, functions and missions, the world of prehistory is permeated by the awareness that the art of the possible consists in calling life, in an arid and risky world, new people from existing and older people. Paleopolitics is the miracle of man’s repetition of man. It is acquired and practiced in an environment that seems to want to somehow make it difficult for people to repeat themselves in children.
As an example of absolute islands, Sloterdijk mentions submarines and space stations that already exist today as "controlled environments" and those that will still be created. These absolute islands differ from geographic islands by two characteristics: A) are not restricted to two-dimensional (horizontal surfaces). The islands of the terrestrial globe are not, therefore, absolute islands, cannot move and have their territorial demarcation made by the ocean or the waters of the river. They arise from a radicalization of the principle of enclave creation. This cannot be achieved only by mere pieces of land framed by the sea, because they only succeed in a horizontal isolation leaving the vertical insulation open. The natural marine islands are only relatively and two-dimensionally isolated. They also have a special climate because they are encased in a stream of air mass. The absolute island depends on a three-dimensional insulation, with it, the transit of the capsule landmark, or to use the artistic analogy of the picture painted on wood the installation over the space. To be absolute, an island needs to be created technically and must have features also of the premise of fixing to a place and becoming a mobile island. "That said, the unsurpassable relativity of the natural islands is doubly conditioned: by the two-dimensionality of their isolation and by the immobility of their situation. An absolute, three-dimensional and mobile island needs a revision of the relation with the element of the environment "(SLOTERDIJK, 2006, p 244). It does not have the fixation element in immobility, because it navigates with relative freedom of movement (swimming or flying).
For better visualization, Sloterdijk tells us about Captain Nemo by Jules Verne . Its submarine has the characteristic of mobility-movement (MOBILIS IN MOBILI) that is nothing more than the idea of the globe in movement, an idea used and appropriated by Oswald Spengler as a metaphor to characterize the existential formula of the administrator in our Faustian civilization (which was presented to us quickly in Globes). The power to navigate in all accessible places without being a determinable fixed point. The submarine can be considered a home, an island in motion as the result of the inventive spirit of the era is the first perfect technical realization of design. An idea that gives us absolute certainty of insularity. A world model of isolation. The provision of such a means of movement would not have become for the great majority of modern individuals a satisfactory and indispensable movement practice if the vehicles themselves, with their interior forms, did not connect with elemental structures of sphere-forming in the small-spatial dimension. The boat as in more moderate proportions, the car and the caravan are the mobilized nest or the absolute house. The idea of taking the house with you as mobile huts. Like all modern vehicles, a homeostatic machine. With this background the boat can become a "mobile homeland" for its crews. Under the maritime law there is the recognition of the boats as extensions of the nation whose flag they raise and foreign territory. Being on land transforms logically-spatially and legally-internationally into being on board. Mobilis in mobili is the shortest way to see an absolute island. The idea of absolute insularity. A world mode in cloister and introversion (closed in on itself). A "voluntary exile" or a hermit of the sea.