Peter Sloterdijk on Foams


(Eduardo Rocha) #21

Figures:

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Adaptation of the human hand.

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The Phonograph is a device invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.

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Essay for the grand parade is held at Red Square in Moscow. (2018).

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Mummification.

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Commercial ports in the State of New Jersey - USA.

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Superabundant atmosphere. Jacob Hashimoto.

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The Amazon company opened a transparent biodome created to house a tropical rainforest in Seattle called "the spheres."

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Nagakin Capsule Tower. Kisho Kurokawa. (1972).

References:

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas III: Espumas (Esferología Plural) . Traducción de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, p. 275.

______. Esferas II: Globos (Macroesferología) . Traducción de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2004, pp. 173-218.

ORTEGA Y GASSET, José. Meditação da Técnica ( Meditation of the technique ). Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, p. 16.

______. Meditação da Técnica (Meditation of the technique) . Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, pp. 7-8.

ORTEGA Y GASSET, Jos√©. Medita√ß√Ķes Sobre a T√©cnica (Meditations on the technique) . Lisboa: Sociedade Unipessoal, 2009, pp. 47-49.

ORTEGA Y GASSET, José. Meditação da Técnica (Meditation of the technique) . Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, pp. 11-12.


(Eduardo Rocha) #22

Continuing … Chapter 2: Inside the Home - Foam Architecture

A - From modern architecture to resort explanation

1 - Or be gathered; stopping place and warehouse

2 - Receivers and housing facilities

3 - Submersion and immersion

4 - Houses as immunity systems

5 - The machine to inhabit or the self-mobilized space

6 - Management of directions, location of consumption and regulation of climate

  • Pages (383-427).

Sloterdijk changes his speech quite a bit in these next chapters. Briefly resume the end of the past. He speaks of those who are contoured by the human islands, observes that its group of inhabitants is submitted to local tensions of rules. There is a "normative climate" of a group that is related to its stability, a supervenience of the future. As we have seen in Spheres II - Globes, any idea of ‚Äč‚Äčcenter has remained flawed, be it geocentrism or theocentrism and other cosmologies. As we have seen from the point of view of the history of ideas, the duplication of geocentric totality and theocentric totality is not a phenomenon peculiar to Catholic-Christian metaphysics, but a necessary consequence of the fundamental spherical decision of Greek classicism. After Copernicus and Bruno, the universe had to be rebuilt with good reasons and that it could no longer offer the inhabitants of the land the old security of the covers. The modern age and modernity can be unequivocally characterized by a radical structuring of immunity relations. We would have to think of a radical restructuring of immunity relations. To see the peculiar new situation that the new cosmopolitan theorists Copernicus and Bruno overturned the planetary covers and the firmament, they made the earth eccentric and knocked it down to a cosmic instability for which no inhabitant of it was prepared. According to this analysis it had been emphasized that infinite theology is the fundamental source of nihilism. It is responsible for the equivalence between being-there and insecurity. It is the initial denial of all human demands for immunity. Nietzsche in speaking of the morality of customs made moral criticisms and the result of his analysis is that the morality of customs has the ability to order without the possibility of replica or dialectic. The sense of the traditional demands of mastery of oneself consists in letting custom and tradition dominate for themselves, a custom dictatorship. That which dominates without conditions is worth as an absolute end, as the good, as the just. The goddess who holds the blindfold in her eyes and the scales in her hand. In its name shines the damage in favor of the legitimate power of forms, procedures, processes and customs in general. A formalism that structures the Roman judicial process that possesses auras of good inspired invoices or the singing ceremony of the American anthem at major sporting events. Both in one and in another and in any similar is the donor authority of the bottom of the social syntax. Systemic stability. A calm in the hurry. This ability to maintain structures is among the primary tasks of any social and unitary configuration ever seen. In the context of Spherology we must speak of "moral statics", since one is proper theory for the human islands must have the possibility of its consolidation by internal normative tensions.

Following this logic of forms or rather from the perspective that one can gain their moral analogies, the "societies", both the primitive and the more developed are tensegrity of expectations. It is the same as saying: multiplicities of housing constraints and regulated actions that are consolidated through intimidation and threats. The expectations of normalized groups do not show any pressure character, but rather by a performance by "pull" (drag, attraction, flip). It is so true that the layer of ambition and self-esteem, including the mimetic temptation, can be attributed to this mode of force transmission. It is only in the face of the manifested threat that pressure analogues come into play that are therefore reserved for a state of exception. The culture for Sloterdijk functions as a principle in not letting free of tensions that create the traction effort by which the members of the group attach themselves to regularities of the group. Things such as law enforcement and customs exert a permanent stress or self-stressing stimulus on the limbs and place them in a sort of symbolic vibration that gives them an endogenously stabilized body temperature of a living being that is full of hot, boiling blood. Because groups always project something, whether they are works or parties, wars or elections, and they continually feel provoked by something, whether natural disasters, enemy actions, crimes or scandals, they constantly subvert the thematic material they use to agree on their or better about your immunization situation or your state of stress. With the help of their current themes, the group measures itself to fever. By his fever he recovers his operative unit as a context of provocation, endogenously closed. The repression of the normative stressors to the subliminal one takes place because the group incrusts (it incorporates) in routine his expectations of action. The routine becomes a form of "expected effort." A receptacle emptied on the inside filled with repetition, and therefore even imperceptible. Arnold Gehlen, who produced works in this sense to demonstrate the importance of normalized expectations of effort, understood as a concept of institutions, which for him would be nothing more than a permanent commitment reached between charges and discharges. Institutions would be a prototype of stabilized force or tension. This concept of institution is as an appeal in favor of keeping unconscious the order in which a conception of the unconscious directed to the latent rather than the repressed comes into play. Here comes the importance of what is called rule because it is the objectivity of the rule that frees both individuals and groups from the misery of formlessness and the same way from the requirement of constant originality. Another side of the nomotopo becomes visible and is the opposite of what in the twentieth century took a lot of space in sociological theories. The visible side has a side contrary to the propensity to conceal power and dominance in routines. As a self-impressive and self-intimidating magnitude, the group acquires an inflation by norms and lives on a performative force of rituals, customs, and its impulse of manifestation. The impulse would become the politics so present among the moderns. With all the antropotecnics described and explained, on the islands the air becomes free. With the emergence of the anthropogenic islands (anthropospheres), we see savannas where they spit out self-marking units that acquire ontological meaning based on greenhouses of human beings. For these greenhouses, human beings are attracted who acquire a tendency towards a world opening. They are the ones that stopped being hominids. From their cultivated and planted bodies flourish brains and hands of what we call sapiens. The place of human beings must be an imagination and an implant of a world of life where anthropology-topology is present as a biosphere in which human and non-human companions coexist. The sapiens emerge from their own environment is that because they believe in an inner world for which they make it a company. Entertainment, magic, symbols, work, signs, ecstasy, comfort, status, tasks, tensions, sounds are in the surroundings like themselves. A free or ecstatic intelligence arises. Anthropic ecstasy is the detachment or repression of animal constriction. Human being now means the innate inability to remain an animal. The domestication of being is the emergent.

What we call "society" is understandable by the nine dimensions we have already spoken about and which constitutes a field of places with tensions of unequal explanations. A place with multiplicities of spaces or foams. Every individual cell in the foam should be understood as a micro insulation that carries in itself the model of antropotecnics. For in every individual formation you must now add the divergent tensional within multidimensionality. Like cell or cells in foams everywhere, every wall, every resonance group, constitutes a miniature of the whole. Every cell or every consortium of cells (cultures) are clustered together in a floating multiplicity of unilateral and reciprocal imitations of crosses, mimicry, and mixture in which it is not possible to identify a fundamental and panoramic homogenous form. What Heidegger in Being and Time had spoken of technique and which we see here as the chirotope (the world at hand) shows that the cause of its familiarity is the fundamental feature of openness. Sloterdijk speaks of modifications produced during the twentieth century of being in the foam as architectural, esthetic, legal implantation. Existence as a resort. Understanding resort by residence or stay or delay in one place. To inhabit is something inseparable from humans. In the Modern era as Benjamin had already spoken of the house as an added element the nature and enabling of human beings. A situation of being in space and the creation of space as a means of artificial existence as change and political consequences of traffic in the era of air and air dominance. Of course, as we have already said Sloterdijk uses this conquest of air as a phenomenon of explanation of the air space by the terror of the gas (atmoterrorists), air weapons, air conditioning, etc. Air sovereignty as a conquest of the third dimension.
Sloterdijk (2006, p. 384):

The authentic "revolution of space" of the twentieth century is the explanation of human permanence or backwardness in an interior by the machine to be inhabited, the design of the climate, the planning of the environment (even the great forms, which we call collectors), as well as the exploitation of the neighborhood with inhuman spatial structures, preponderant and associated with the human, the cosmic (macro and micro) and the virtual. In fact, in order to make the permanence of people in inhabited places explicable, nothing less than a reversal of the relation between the foreground and the background as to the conditions of human accommodation was necessary.

We must project our houses into the void and formulate a future as if they were close relatives like the space capsules. The architecture of Modernity is the medium in which the explanation of the human resort in the interiors constructed by the human being is articulated procedurally. Architecture consubstantiates itself in the location of being-there. A place where it is possible to live, to stay and to be with oneself with self-reference, money, interconnection and mobility. Sloterdijk continues and gives us clues about what he is doing. The world or these places can only now be thought of as the here and there as a "world life".

Sloterdijk says that a place is (2006, p. 385):

A portion of enclosed and conditioned air, a transmitted and upgraded atmosphere site, a node of host relationships, a crossroads in a network of data flows, a direction for business initiatives, a niche for self-relationships, a base camp for expeditions to the work environment and experiences, a business location, a regenerative zone, a subjective night guarantor. The further the explanation goes, the more it seems to be the building of houses, the installation of space stations. The very habitation and the production of its receptacles becomes an orthography of all the dimensions or components that were mounted on the anthropogenic island, growing together originally; in it, the decomposition of completely agglutinated living conditions and their rational remodeling, can take up to a limit value of the repetition of the human world island, in general, in an apartment for single inhabitant.

With all an infinite mobilization, especially in the Modern era as the traffic of people, the goods have been creating all the conditions of design and innovative perceptions of what refers to the way of inhabiting the human. The reactions of the Industrial Revolution created an open path for work-labor, where there is an overrun of the agrarian way for multifocal, multilocal and almost nomadic conditions of life. Only this form of tele mobility and light mobility is what enabled technical transporter and existential architectures to inhabit, a light in the stationary sedentarism. Now the concept of skepticism can be positivized in front of all the adherents to the soil, especially the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčnation already only adored by the conservatives. With that in mind, the traditional dwelling as a homeland nation does not represent a form of universally valid figure of the lingering in a place. This delay is something surmountable by the stanza in a place of humans as those who retain something. Man‚Äôs place is a container-housing. From places of rest, means of transportation with departure and arrival times, air-conditioned waiting places to our homes are places of stop.

Being in an accommodation is also being in comfort. With a wait comes the moment when you can no longer be contaminated by the illness of waiting. The instant the planted fruits are ready to consume, store, and replant. The houses are waiting rooms at places to stop. Houses are places of stay for a life retained and offer a place the irruption of time in space. They are vials or domes that refers to the permanence of the human being in lodgings. An interesting perspective appears. The retained or housed life presents itself as a hope of change of mood by new offers of movement. Dwell has a new outfit, means now, being away from the outside or cannot go outside. If that is true, then, to dwell is to be in, to be housed, and if it is so for humans, it means to dwell anywhere else.

Modernity was master’s in designing and creating a "receptive waiting" for signals in technical devices such as radio sets and telephones, whose existence allows the conclusion that human houses are always receiving missive stations from the unusual. The way of inhabiting human beings consists of a trivial installation in which alone it allows to differentiate the nontrivial. An ability to structure life by customs to undertake something. If humans are locked in their rooms it is because they are wanting or trying to seek escape from triviality. This universal scenario leads to the modern way of life, especially the apartment, where sitting there, in the same goes along with a kind of waiting signal for someone to call. A domestic life is endowed with an extremely poor stimulus charge. In a certain period of life this gave rise to a whole specialization of construction and architectures, be they cathedrals, places of stops, stations, etc. All these places compel heaven to accept humans as passengers. In the literature one sees innumerable cases of hospitality that was very well codified by the religious cultures and they concern the possibility of receiving a stranger or a guest in his own house like a place of stop. And in this we see once more the figure of Jesus. Was there not a time when a newcomer had become a universal savior or an announced savior? It was a messenger sign of divinity. In another sense we must explain that houses work in a context other than mere receivers.


(Eduardo Rocha) #23

Here Sloterdijk intelligently speaks in a certain way of culture and how houses become ontological therapeutic stations of ecstatic beings, precisely because they may suffer from immunodeficiency and can become ill from lack of meaning. A sieve not to fall into the abyss of nihilism, filters before the senseless, sanatoriums to treat disorders of what is significant. This in a way contributed to some hermeneutics of ‚Äúhomelessness.‚ÄĚ A spatial disorientation. Heidegger believed that this lack of homeland is in fact a sign of the modern age or a symptom of modern man, for he cannot perceive this without also regretting. Vil√©m Flusser philosophized as a true Jewish immigrant when choosing to demystify the homeland or the country soil. An aggressive view of existence and lack of homeland. If a homeland is considered a place where permanence becomes relative, a type of housing changeable, transferable. One can travel the globe, one can travel from one country to another, or have none, but one must live somewhere, no matter where. Parisian clochards live under bridges. Another case that came to mind is the gypsies. Sloterdijk is speaking of the ironic reason, to be sure, to show that its distance from the distinctions between real and non-real in philosophy are part of the lightness symptom of our time. This lightness that Sloterdijk thematizes is unbearable. It is vertical vector of so light it is. Reality is admitted as temporary fiction, only to avoid the less painful path when we pass from one belief to another (to go from belief A to B we admit that they are going from the real to the real or something like that), then we are already encumbering this the contemporaneousness that is its lightness. There arises the ‚Äúunsustainable lightness of being‚ÄĚ. The world seems to lose reality by losing its seriousness, so non-serious practices are made serious, the need that vanishes before freedom is reintroduced to bel pleasure as what ‚Äúwould be necessary.‚ÄĚ Subjectivity then reappears as a pole with some contour, but now dominated, on the one hand, by freedom that is no longer possible to be defined as ‚Äúthe consciousness of necessity,‚ÄĚ as Hegel and Marx taught, but the possibility of deciding what necessity to invent. The subject, in this effort, does not cease to have a strange autonomy. It is an autonomy that gives you the ability to choose who will deceive you. However, all this is possible, yes, because in the limit this reason of not having reason was only posed as possible since, in its lightness, it also needs to be serious, and this because of an Other that has become different. The other is the gypsy. It‚Äôs not the other one from my neighborhood. It is not the other as was the Arab for the European, in the Arab invasions, in the Crusades. It is another that becomes involved and becomes close. It is the other that wanders through Europe. If some of them, the refugees, are seen as terrorists, this is not so different from being seen as a gypsy. It is not an invading army that wanders Europe. These are people who wander. They are the ones who can wander and ‚Äúhit the leg‚ÄĚ. They are those who may have no domicile. It‚Äôs the new gypsies. They make reason and philosophy really create self-criticism to the point of maximum irony. There is no reason to be right in talking to the new campers of gypsies, refugees and immigrants, who want to wander around Europe. So, the current reason is and remains critical for being ironic. If Sloterdijk spoke about a turnaround of the world‚Äôs reversion to lightness, a topological shift on ecology and cosmonautics, we must stick to a reversal of housing. Taken as dwelling there cannot have the sense of homeland function. Being-in the motherland is understood as a side effect of dwelling. The house appears as a generator of redundancy or as a habit machine with the task of dividing into familiar or unfamiliar masses the signals that arrive ‚Äúfrom the world‚ÄĚ that present a significant or important icon. In this way, house-dwelling is an agency that must determine usable signs. We come in a dynamic of house-dwelling as a space immunity system. This explanation transcends the walls and walls that we look at in waiting rooms, as generators of habits and emergent situation. From the immunological point of view, dwelling is a measure of defense by which a sphere of wellbeing is defined in front of invaders and other sufferers of malaise. All immunity systems claim a right to defense against disorders that need no justification. Most often the description of immunity systems is made by visions of social facts that could fall into such things as social coherence in automated cooperation in an immune commune. In ‚Äúsocieties,‚ÄĚ the systems of immunity were the family, the tribe, the city, the community of faith, the people, the party, cooperatives, business, etc.

All of them are unit-entities that want to make themselves as an operationally effective immunological unit and that dictate to their members modes of behavior, rules of coexistence, statutes, laws, to serve as a banner of a common immunity. The Modern model of dwelling consists in that it addresses above all the needs of isolation and relation of flexibilization individuals and their companions of life, who no longer seek or seek their immune optimization in imaginary and real collectives or in cosmic totalities as we have seen in Spheres II - Globes, ideas like home, people, class and state. Whoever leaves what is called a community of immunity and solidarity is considered a traitor. We see in these classifications the clear sense of what immunitas means. Non-cooperation in higher community work. So, could all of modern society be regarded as traitors? The houses of this time are living proofs of a civilizing project that puts in order a new formation of units of immunity and spaces of integration. If the houses are spaces of the individual how to think then the connection of immunity and community? The single life intensifies even more in the contemporary period. Just as in the era of "naked life," existence means the stage of success of a one-man place. The right of the master of the house configures the latent ideal of all immunity, he is the one who decides, the gifted of decision-making power for the admission or non-admission of a stranger in his own space. Immunity is taken as a provisional force against a vulnerable force, for it internalizes before protecting. The right of space, the heart of private law, protects the associated life as a set of activities constituted one in the other and of several lives, that by the fact of consuming acquire the possibility to develop by themselves. Nothing but self-limits and to the exclusion of the other.

I find the Foams very interesting, especially the initial part and the current almost half of the book to the end. The part of the islands is theoretically very good, but the descriptions of the two or three topoi are very interesting, the others seem subdivisions of the main ones. So far, everything sounds very convincing and reminds me that Sloterdijk does not just do philosophical work, this chapter talks a lot about environments, buildings, artists, architects and some other philosophers. It seems that he is almost omnipresent in the works of others, speaks with enough propriety pointing to their mistakes. This design of the Spheres seems to have taken up quite a bit of time from it and seems to me meticulously created. It is difficult to try to find some hole, mistake or anything that distorts what he has done here. I realized that Foams have a certain tone to describe climates, environments, air, machines, and dwellings. Which leaves us questions like: If there was a climatic catastrophe with our atmospheric conditions and the planet where we would live? How would we produce oxygen artificially? How would we generate energy to inhabit the inside? What materials would we use? And the ventilation, control temperature, water, energy, communication, electricity, fence? Will not we do the same in space? What climate policy should we think for the future? And with the oil reserves we will one day be without them?
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Rochers de Naye. Switzerland.

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Three US pilots in front of Dymaxion Deployment Unites deployment units, North Africa (1944).

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U-town. Steven Brower. (1998).

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Marina City. Chicago.


Thunderdome. Mad Max

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Boy uses grid like net.

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The Necklace Dome. Buckminster Fuller. (1950).


(Eduardo Rocha) #24

Hello guys. I spent these two weeks intensifying the final reading of Sloterdijk and finally finished Foams. I will put here a general text about the last chapters because they are very explanatory and well divided, so it would be bad to comment or describe what he says in each subdivision. But at the end of the book I was well pleased. The best part of the book is the beginning and the beginning part in 2 - Indoors. The part about human islands is interesting, but as I said before it’s kind of 2 or 3 themes that begin to subdivide. At the end of this journey, it would still be with the first book Bubbles, secondly Foams and third globes. Although at times it is kind of boring because of the volume of the books, I think Sloterdijk did indeed create a good vision and would even say very particular and singular. I believe that in the future many people will return to Sloterdijk on various subjects.

This final part constitutes: B - Cellular construction, Egospheres and autocontainer until Retrospective - Of a dialogue about the oxymoron.

Sloterdijk in this final part talks a lot about the inner spaces where the man starts to move from a small space to something bigger like Assemblies, Parties, Shareholders, Meetings, Unions, etc. He says that the autistic person does not have the "inner spatiality" that makes him fit to be his own company. The self-supplementing structure of the individual has deep anthropological-mediatic roots and can only be explained in terms of media history. The minimal formal condition of self-supplementation consists in the fact that the individual in question is integrated into a dyad with a real or imaginary Other. The question of the social life of the isolated individual, such as that of the small group animal, homo sapiens, remains in purely individualistic form, just like the solitary inhabitant of his apartment-world where two conclusions can be drawn. One is that the individual, by himself, jokes about being the entire horde. This implies the effort of representing twelve or twenty people within their inner world, members of at least three generations. Then, in the absence of other real ones, a complete social structure has to be simulated. If we speak of alliances and symbiosis, we should note that a modus vivendi of modern "society" developed in a double rhythm. First, the decomposition of social conglomerates into individualized complex units (such as condensation and spherical encapsulation of self, the ability to adopt a position in opposition to the outside) and their recombination into cooperative sets. If we take it from the point of view of "mass", many authors especially in the twentieth century will speak in their books that "modern society is a mass" or that "populations form a mass", "mass of workers" do not look at a fact that architects and designers have realized. The entry of "mass for history" is an architectural problem. If we are in an aggregate, tight state, without opening their symbionts, modern collectives must consider the task of producing spatial conditions that support the isolation of individuals here, and their meeting in multiethnic co-operation and contemplation sets. This requires a new design approach. If we take the French Revolution, we will see that the activists of the revolts could only meet in buildings of the Old Regime or in public space of the cities, especially the squares in front of large real estate. What would one day misjudge the so-called "architecture of revolution". Projects not mature at the time of an emancipation of the cultural conception of space and its geometric formations. The first act of speaking of the bourgeois takeover of power had as its architecture the National Constituent Assembly. The place of supremacy of political power, whose concept was taking shape, where it would never be undone, and could take shape anywhere and in the most fundamental moments of its making. What is in a way something from Hegel with his phenomenology of spirit and Wittgenstein in saying that "culture is a rule of order or presupposes a rule of order." For this field of action and such rules Sloterdijk calls nomotopo. Sloterdijk aptly calls it the "First Constitutional Theory". The Foam taking content in Foam City or foam town. That being said, we could underline that a "revolution" or a "revolutionary event" is a process that takes place, although initially it appears to occur in an inappropriate place. Meetings, National Assemblies, Legislative Assemblies, National Conventions, Parties, commissions, forums of discussions are the revolutionary requirement of space, which in principle would only have in common the embarrassment that they had to settle in the architecture of the old order.

That being said, we could underline that a "revolution" or a "revolutionary event" is a process that takes place, although initially it appears to occur in an inappropriate place. Meetings, National Assemblies, Legislative Assemblies, National Conventions, Parties, commissions, forums of discussions are the revolutionary requirement of space, which in principle would only have in common the embarrassment that they had to settle in the architecture of the old order. It seems that the fact that the power group that emerged from it identified actively and passively with the name of its place of meeting and emanation shows the power of the spirit of the place over the gathered, a spirit of authority or transfer of authority. A symbolic weight or a constitutive (local) fact first. A constructivist specter always creeping in search of new beginnings on a shallow slab. There was never an empty republican space, it was in him that the men of the moment could be moved to future generations. Anyone who insults against something, manifests a discontent to new forms and formats of distribution of functions, subversions and roles of the existing. The revolution is a name change. Attention is drawn in this period to a phenomenon of abolition. Whether of statues, street names, sites, bridges, monarchical monuments, would be replaced by images of freedom and emancipation, the transformation of the Louvre into the first great national museum, altars to the homeland and symbols of freedom and struggle. As a result, the rooms and functions at the national level of the feudal and clerical rooms for the accommodation of representatives of the Third Estate were also changed. Rooms, offices, administration offices, places in the Assembly, tables, rooms of judgment, etc. Nothing more than local and large meeting places where representatives and represented could meet in celebration format and solemnly. The image of the mass as sovereign national people. Sloterdijk also theory about "mass society," but at times is critical of the term for him society is "foam", he uses the term temporarily to talk especially about the French Revolution. The fervor of this movement of assemblies, allowed the old models of buildings for the ones of great concentration soon returned. The arena and circus style of the Romans and the Greek amphitheaters were the sight that large concentrations needed. A model that could be realized for the "masses," gained strength in the face of the celebration and feast of the Federation, the confederations of patriots who had joined forces to defend against counterrevolutionary intrigues. Celebration of the day of the taking of the Bastille (July 14, 1790 on the Champ de Mars).

The figure of Talleyrand was consummated in the image of priest in the master of mass ceremonies - "masses." The emergence of the media politician as showmaster and director of consensus. The rebirth of the stadium and the idea of ‚Äč‚ÄčOlympism is also very important. In serious studies of Modernity we shall see that modern totalitarianism is nothing more than a product of the stage. We recall the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčantropotecnics de fonotopo. The agitation that the assembled cause, gives rise to a phantom of unanimity, a "general sounding will". The plebs and the plebiscite of noise. Sloterdijk recalls Gabriel de Tarde when speaking that in his theory the "social state of the human being is a hypnotic or somnambulist." The shouting of the stadium crowds reveals a mimetic excitement, excitement of "sound gestures" and their amplified return on a larger scale Massively. Elias Canetti on the other hand, in Mass and Power would speak that the characterization of the visual and architectural conditions of a stadium, is the mass like ring. An acoustic fascination that results from the meeting about it. As public agitators, the men who dictate the encounters know how to use the power of music. There an event becomes a truth. In the nineteenth century we would see an amount of controlled ceremonial forms where "societies" would revitalize this notion of arena and stage. If we speak of witnesses of the revolution and place for them to happen, in the twentieth century new impulses for large agglomerations and concentrations should be collected architecturally.

Sloterdijk (2006, pp. 476-477):

Passwords in the history of collectors are called the Olympic Games, the Russian Revolution and fascism. What unites this heterogeneous trinity is the common challenge of developing great interiors for present and mobilized multitudes in order to manage their capacity for reaction through stage-centered illusions. It is true that at the height of Modernity the art of social synthesis was only exercised as if it were an indirect; but this does not exclude that the direct meetings of the multitude in their symbiotic hours demand the intervention of the more explicit organized knowledge. This is pragmatized in the exploration of the great collectors. From the appearance and establishment of such macro-interiors one can know that the type of construction analyzed by Walter Benjamin, the passages - in which he sought the deep idea of ‚Äč‚Äčthe interior of the nineteenth century: the paradoxical synthesis of intimacy and public world of commodity- , no longer play any key role in understanding the space-creating processes of contemporary society. As far as their mercantile dimension is concerned, the passages have been replaced by commercial centers outside urban complexes or by pedestrian zones of the city center: recent architecture only takes them into account as historicizing quotations.

With regard to the creative possibilities of space in the twentieth century scenario, a range of abstractions of stadiums and apartments take over the surroundings. In both we see the foaming happen. An annihilator of individual space, of the multitude in large containers. In the other, a preponderance of civilizational scumming of ‚Äúsociety‚ÄĚ in crowded egospheres and egotechniques. A come and go, an exchange. A dialectic of modernization. The possibility of a center no longer subsists. Resistance in favor of the midpoint develops its own centers and attractions of the great multitude. In stadiums, arenas, General Assembly, buildings that will appear all over the world we will see a recentralizing trend for political and cultural motivations of the twentieth century. With postmodernity, we have seen a decomposition of the historical climate and the lack of a midpoint. The desire of the center allied itself with the formation and the will of plenary meeting. The Olympic idea gains strength in the ‚Äúdesespiritualization of ascesis‚ÄĚ, that is, in the exercises of improvement and self-improvement. For this, nothing better than to revive the Olympic idea as a modern ideology with its rather powerful ritual force allied with the physical concentration of masses. This scenario would also converge with the spirit of competition of the economic society. A modern concept of freedom says that anything that strengthens competition should be allowed. An idea of ‚Äč‚Äč"athletic rebirth" at all. This Modern conversion would be a machine to produce winners and victories and make the spectators the witnesses between the one who is the first and the others. A Modern psycho-political function would be potentialized with neoliberalism and the capitalist market in full development. A scenario of struggle and suffering that represent the dream of transforming the trivial body into a statue capable of wonders and surreal performance. The figure of the winner‚Äôs podium would be a field of emanation of strong political and racial energy. A young democracy ended up imitating colossal Roman constructions as a vitalist gesture in a ‚Äúnational revolution‚ÄĚ with tragic-sentimental connotations. In Berlin, the first athletic rebirth took place under national-socialist fabrics. Similarities between the fascist organization for a major sporting event or event converged to an ideological (national-socialist) core and with the feeling of convening a special place for the athletic elite of youth. The F√ľhrer cult corresponds to the idea of ‚Äč‚Äča popular plenum, it can be philosophically coherent as a figure of the death of the old western centrism. Olympism would have the slogan that all power comes from a healthy body and are. Thus, Fascist-type legitimacy would have the pinch of popular biological aristocracy of an Olympic character. Hitler‚Äôs populist-style meetings were not celebrated to represent a program or repertory, the program itself is in the idea of ‚Äč‚Äča meeting and a pretext for convening the crowd to be together (national-revolutionary). A self-themed or monothematic totalitarianism is the result of the submission of this ‚Äúparty organization‚ÄĚ, of the presentation of the collectors-organizers and of the great media that they drag the press, propaganda center, radio, and judiciary with themes that sounded interesting to them. A National Socialism as a city of general party assemblies already existed when at the time the Berlin Olympic Games took place. Political centrism outside the sportsmanship led to a breakdown of the autonomous personality and the banality of evil.

Victory and success was to be reunited. A tendency towards generalizing self-inclusion for the complementation and coupling of the great event with its transmission through the mass medium. One would see the organization of symbiotic ‚Äúmasses‚ÄĚ within modern macro interiors linked to a mediatic plurality in connection with them. From this point of view, Hitler‚Äôs war was a continuation of festivals with different means. Games like cults for compromise and fallen Germans, deceived with the victory of World War 1. Nazi ideology engendered a German corporate identity. Hitler, Goebbels & Co., had a core cult of the dead. Little by little the subjects captured by the nationalist ideals were leaving aside the times of celebrations and celebrations. In its place we would have the constant and lasting capture of German public opinion. The capture in all possible centers, business organizations, communal organizations, associations and neighborhoods for the stress of cooperation of war and the enthusiasm generated by the media, where the news were of success. The mass media or mass media has been a gigantic effectiveness of the modern national state to large groups 80 million people, 200 million people and consequently because the strength of the union of such collectives cannot come from the collective as a whole. It has to come from outside of what this collective indicates that corresponds to the substance that continuously excites, the ‚Äúnews topics‚ÄĚ. A circle of the national collective where the news is nothing more than proposals of excitement. Who wants to learn, improve, paint, run, work, enter into learning processes should stick to a group of professionals, whether elites or ordinary. All this has a place. A circle of meetings. The contemporary scenario will present companies in public relations and business agencies and event management services, in holiday organization firms, analytical offices, telecommunication agencies, political leaders that emanate a message. A that realities as self-spatializations of ‚Äúsocieties‚ÄĚ are done in a multifocal way. Recently Trump and Kim Jong-un met at the Capella Hotel luxury hotel in Singapore which sits on Sentosa Island. The island was singled out as the preferred option by the North Koreans, as it was a more isolated point than the others. At this hotel, the Leaders gathered in a special room to discuss North Korea‚Äôs nuclear program and its end, the newspapers defined the meeting as a ‚Äúhistoric meeting.‚ÄĚ Both signed a denuclearization agreement. Another ‚Äúhistoric summit‚ÄĚ took place months before, the two Korean leaders on the border between North and South, where they both pledged to seek the ‚Äúcomplete denuclearization‚ÄĚ of the peninsula and the end of the conflict that has been raging since the 1950s. still if we catch the recent case of democratization and opening of Cuba where the Assembly of Cuba approved a proposal of reform of the Constitution and opened popular consultation between August and November. The Reformation that opens the right to the private property and the gay marriage was approved this Sunday 22 from July 2018 and now, will go through three months of popular consultation and should still be voted in a national referendum.

In the scenario of the common space between the three poles of modern life and the common space we will have: work, housing and public space and collector. The imposition of traffic and communication (check-in, Wi-fi) pushes city dwellers for lightness, for thin, fast, smooth products. The change of place and flow of data and information is what the electronic impulse gives us. Metaphors about virtual cities, online territory, Bitcoins, networks and telematic communication, where urbanism transcends materiality, corporality and density of space into a medium without message, since the medium itself is the message (angelic processes of traffic). It presents the process of foamy character and urban condensation. The spatial constitution (real-surreal) in the macrofoams (citizen-only; the idea of a cell or the immunization system as the single-apartment) is best observed only when we realize that there is a meeting of meeting and non-meeting places. They experiment with new procedures for the purpose of a better synthesis of "society" in concentration spaces. We will see a new description of the urban space if it produces like stilts, systems of pillars, new hinged spatial articulations, artificial meetings, so that yes, the space can exist. Coexistence between your peers and things. The projective energies run through the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčtowering, leaving the ground. An architecture whose movement has a will to feudal power or the upward metaphysical movement of existence. Levitate, lift your feet off the ground and overcome gravity, a configuration of the excerpts of the verticality of a posthistory. Between ancient buildings and buildings there is no dialectic, but something like an overlay. Something superimposed on the air in the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčpillar: the basic technology of posthistory (a second Babylon). In this new, typically postmodern, off-the-ground world, there is a complexity with political consequences similar to past events. Ungovernability. The Neo-Babylonians are existentialists because they live in a world after alienated labor. His contact with reality is produced on the construction of environments, atmospheres and moving spaces. We must yield to a new psychogeographic description of space with the mood of mood states. Constant Anton Nieuwenhuys perhaps was the greatest visionary only twentieth century with his projects. He is a true analyst of atmospheric poly "society" with a quality that is his ability to generate artificial atmospheres of dwellings and their human practices.

Sloterdijk (2006, pp. 502-503):

Given that its utopia, following the social fantasies of the Situationist International, conceives of the new "society" as a form of coexistence of happy unemployed, without its city the atmospheric milieu of coexistence, which otherwise is considered as a byproduct, appears for the first time as the main product. (Guy Debord, with whom Constant had cooperated since the late 1950s, had spoken of urban "neighborhoods of feeling" and "realities of feeling" in 1957). Neo-Babylonians are the first inhabitants of an explicit aphro-political structure: the creator of a city that unfolds on the earth as the exuberant colony of nomad artists on stilts and which consists exclusively of receptacles of atmosphere and individualized reversible environments. The content of this city is the history of the art of citizens. As far as its forms of appearance are concerned, the idea that Constant foresaw the aesthetic post-historical scrap of Mad Max is imposed. The Neo-Babylonian aphropolis - fully shown in 1974 in the Hague Municipal Museum - visualizes with the gesture of exposing non- authoritarian (that is, not thought to be realized) a possible urban form of that "social plastic" that Beuys had postulated in his metapolitical discourses. Mark Wigley notes, in view of the controversial meddling of the situationists in the events of May 1968: "The atmosphere becomes the basis of political action. The accessory, apparently ephemeral, mobilizes as an active sentinel in the concrete struggle. As a ghostly end point of such fights, New Babylon is a gigantic Jukebox of atmospheres, of which only make use of a completely revamped society. "

As conceptual experiment Constant shows the coexistence of "creative unemployed" in the collective flow space that leads to a result in which every human being is an artist, an installation artist (I-designer), where environments emanate from an identification with consummation of life. The power to build and draw the environment without being subject to previous sediments and wall papers. A premise that tells us to abandon the primacy of the past and the dictatorship of scarcity, in order to think of liberating the chain of productive forces for the suppression of any alienated work. The key to understanding the New Babylon project is to think about creating an artificial paradise in the form of a climbing garden for men eager for inner creation and inner world space. The crystallized paradise is a garden, because they offer a total interior in which all the spaces are air conditioned creating an artificial lighting and atmosphere. The being-there inserted in an architectural rhizome. Being within the facility, a design without homeland and without fixed rooms as constant movement unplanned. It is permissible to think that in the future "natures" or "nature" or biomes are less and less "outside" or outside than in the great studies of a civilization. The idea of ‚Äč‚Äčencapsulation is dominant in the twentieth century and large scale for the integration of larger and larger complexes, perhaps even in the landscape sense or external citizens. The city each passing day is a constant conversion into an operative unit of the three modes. The space station, the greenhouse and the human island.

In the final part of the book Sloterdijk talks primarily about a philosopher and anthropologist Arnold Gehlen and Galbraith and his considerations on contemporary society. It was Galbraith who said that in the opulent society one cannot make any valid distinction between luxuries and needs. In the Opulent Society of 1958 he says that there was a time when poverty was a determining factor of everything. Nowadays it is not anymore. It may be that the serious problems of "society" come much more from the superabundance that we still cannot quite understand. It may be that she endangers her own wealth. We can define conservatism as the political form of melancholy. Its form in Europe was seen after 1789 as a fact that arose from the retrospective trip to the unrecoverable goods, forms of life and arts in pre-bourgeois times. It is conservative who refuses to stop believing that the good and the noble are linked to the place and the unrepeatable. For the vulgar, on the contrary, the principle of majority and repetition suffices. If we speak of optimistic conditions, of improvement of the conditions of life, the conservative puts itself in a cover. Is not hoping or assuming the best in the future no longer the search for the wrong direction? The idea of ‚Äč‚Äčprogress which for him is never more than an acceleration of flight before the good, which becomes unreachable. Tocqueville had already spoken in his day that the kind of detractor thought of his own time and worried about him, believed that all evil was inseparable from the successes of the new. The right has always been the party of weight and incorrigibility. The land that the conservatives inhabit are the long, the defective ones, those of necessity and those of charges. If they mistakenly say that Peter Sloterdijk is conservative, we should note that moderns are convinced that they are on a path to optimizing their status and levels of immunity by taking that too in a political field, conservatives soon open their ears. It seems they have no sympathy for optimism. The step forward and progress are not associated with them. It is not surprising that the golden age of conservative sentiment would be seen in the early nineteenth century as a time of maintenance, the so-called "Restoration Era." This illusion that it was possible to be secure in the face of progress dissolves. Who lived before social issues knows nothing of the harshness of life. If conservatism is melancholy, it is because they invented the "sad science" of the human being and the economy which, since the beginning of the nineteenth century, has been the continuum of most discourses of modernization. Which makes me think of the initial thesis that he had said that Sloterdijk though he seems a conservative is not as Zizek says.

Another conservative like Adorno would condemn this idea, to follow a dark vision that followed industrial pauperism. For him, not even the bastard freed themselves from the disfigurement of the world by the abstraction of exchange. Everything would be coined similarly. Life would be subaltern and corroded by the subjection of things in the expression of price. The form of an enlightened conservatism. An event in the twentieth century would present the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčovercoming mass material poverty in the first world countries. But a certain pessimism said that economic wealth would never be enough to put an end to the poverty complex. The Frankfurt School with its critical theory presented the idea that the enrichment of the multitude could only lead to more misery only that with new formats, capitalism would be the change of the deception. It was founded on the idea of homo pauper based on human nature (Arnold Gehlen). What matters now is to take a turn toward well-being, opulence, comfort, pampering, comfort, lightness. With the collapse of socialism and barbarism of the twentieth century, a period that consisted of a war between totalitarian ideologies of the ethnic-nationalist and socialist-internationalist types and the defensive victory of democratic capitalism, the new world confrontation would present a horizon of good -establish the inclusion of the ‚Äúmasses‚ÄĚ in the distribution of wealth. We would see practical effects of day-to-day modernization such as increasing scientific research, technical inventions, business life, expansion of the health and insurance system, labor rights, social and labor benefits that would enable people with a certain change in family structures and in their mentalities, in a search for hope, based on the idea of longevity and falling birth rates. The progressive factors allowed an individualism to a situation where the pauperism gave rise to the well-being. The social field had created dozens of platforms for popular ambitions. The events of the twentieth century could only be interpreted by an era of evasion of modern ‚Äúsociety‚ÄĚ as the definitions of the era of poverty and effort. The beginning of various intellectual works began to adopt the vocabulary ‚Äúconsumer society‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúliving society‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúsociety of spending‚ÄĚ, ‚Äúculture of appearance‚ÄĚ, among others that would serve as an early diagnosis of the times to come as the climate of the Society. Our space has abandoned the burdens of poverty, of psychosemantics of necessity, and of Miserabilistic International. The anthropological-semantic turn should be the emancipation of penury in the face of a novelty and a political interpretation of wealth. Galbraith‚Äôs Affluent Society provided the discussion of talking about a rich ‚Äúsociety‚ÄĚ of its wealth with moral and ethical implications. There would be tensions for the well-being of well-being. All those economic and political crises had one destiny, cynicism. Contemporary civilization knows how to protect all its members from accidents, illnesses, misfortunes, poverty, failure, and unemployment. The suffering under the theories of exploitation and alienation would not be more dramas of the present nor guides to representations. The lie of misery is no longer sufficiently told or believed. An opposition to resentment and penury would draw an existence of the free spirit (Nietzsche), one that is naturally rich as a wealth manifested by the primacy of giving, the primacy of giving (economically, morally, culturally).

Concerns of this nature were already beginning to arouse the interest of theorists like Herbert Marcuse in 1955 about Sigmund Freud (Pulsational Structure and Society) as one of the first glimpses of a reality in the opposite direction of what was called ‚Äúnon-repressive culture.‚ÄĚ ‚ÄúSociety‚ÄĚ would be free from the spell of repression of drives and of others. His considerations lay in putting aside the psychology of homo pauper, since it had been described almost unanimously by theories of the instinct. A basic interpretation of the spoiled and enriched human being interpreted through appetites, flow of desires, mood, waste. A reaction of the conservative revolution in the first half of the twentieth century emerged as ideology. A crutch for support in an attempt to falsify freedom in need and wealth in poverty. The best way to protect luxury is by denying it is luxury. Post-war situations in the West after two world wars for peacetime, citizens after these events would witness a greenhouse effect of comfort. A growing vision of consumption for the superfluous was present. The acquisitive capacity and frivolity of the ‚Äúmasses‚ÄĚ would lead to a dominant mood. The glitzy consumption of luxury or fashion as well as the automobile and the dream of home and car. The strong expansion of free time affects all psychosocially. The use of this free time would be made in physical, aesthetic, personal, financial, hobbies, travel, tourism, home appliances, penicillin, electricity and oil improvements would have been previously unseen levels. Things that look like Brazil sadly have walked backwards. Sloterdijk concludes by saying that this situation of penury could only result in descriptions in all spheres of pessimism and an import of negativities. A typical ideological context. A context of exploration of the peripheries by the centers. The mercantile forms such as the habit of cheap import (misery) as raw material and of making it into high value products for the consumer market is today seen as a great success in the first world countries. Meanwhile the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčpessimism in the third world facing the wealth of the West is taken on negative balances. If we even think about First World social welfare and the poverty of the underdeveloped presents a framework of results of injustices against the southern hemisphere. What they think of is a kind of conservation of misery as a conservative spirit of misery, effort, poverty, negator of luxury and well-being has been reversed. Pauperism can be described as synonymous with lack. An ontology that goes beyond economic or political aspects, making lack a sort of ‚Äúnegative essence,‚ÄĚ something like a being of scarcity. The human essence would be in this context, its subjectivity. A crooked psyche as a form of human poverty as a historical, social and existential manifestation (products, opportunities and resources) seen, for example, in the works of Arnold Gehlen. A conservative of the twentieth century with Hegelian traditions on the right. Gehlen takes this ideology as a philosophical anthropology. As exponents of the twentieth century would join him with a ‚Äúpessimistic syndrome‚ÄĚ names such as Luhmann, Smith, Adorno, Freud, Lacan, Schmitt and Herder. A growing conservatism based on the deficit man. The determination of homo pauper as anthropology of needs. Conservative moods and a lightening paralysis of things built the deeply poor animal as an active, reflective human being in their culture. Sloterdijk sees man not as being-de-need, but to be rich. Neotenia produces the rich hominid and homo sapiens richer still. The conservative Adorno would never endorse such a thesis, perhaps he would have appreciation for Gehlen‚Äôs considerations. Thus, Adorno does not have a theory for the society of abundance. If a predominance in the twentieth century would have to be that of scarcity and the precarious view of man, few authors would follow a sociology in the mold of Galbraith. When Adorno, along with Horkheimer, produced the texts on the ‚ÄúDialectic of the Enlightenment,‚ÄĚ the society of abundance and individualism we know today were not in vogue. This ‚Äúmodel‚ÄĚ of the Affluent Society would only be better observed in the late 1950s. For Adorno, individualism presented itself as a loss, something that ‚Äúmanaged society‚ÄĚ and ‚Äúlate capitalism‚ÄĚ had either destroyed or eliminated. possibility. Adorno had a utopia of return. His correct world was the ideal world of a time of capitalist society in which mass society had not appeared. Today‚Äôs world is a ‚Äúmass society‚ÄĚ without a doubt, but, as Sloterdijk puts it, we are also in that society that puts the individual as seeing himself as more real than all that is around him. The situation of opulence does not seem to enter in any way on the agenda of intellectuals, who always believe in secular forms of seeing man in the Original Sin and the Fall. If to property Rousseau would be a sin, to think other forms of this would be a sin as well. It is precisely because of his organic underdevelopment that man exhibits his technical potential, so it is precisely this compensatory ability that allowed him to become Homo sapiens and Homo faber.


(Eduardo Rocha) #25

Gehlen takes account of a notion already seen in Nietzsche in talking about man as an ‚Äúundetermined animal,‚ÄĚ through Scheler‚Äôs on-anthropological thesis of ‚Äúworld patency,‚ÄĚ concepts of action of the transcendental tradition, notions of risk and alertness of the contemporary philosophy of existence (mammals) and neoteny as biological interest in human ontogenesis. What would later be confirmed as an antibiologist with strong endowments of sapiens‚Äô instinctive affective negation in later work. The being-decay (M√§ngelwesen) would present negative biological endowments in all their adaptations and their primitivism. Entering through the need of protection, disconnection with the environment, plundered instint, without resources and scarcity as an innate guide. The possibility of being alive with ever new turns is an impossibility for him. He is a hopeless and maladaptive man, a result of premature birth with strong tendencies to helplessness and self-destruction. Obviously, from the readings made here of Sloterdijk‚Äôs works, especially on the question of technique, makes us believe otherwise. The technique, in this case, are not the tools that man manufactures, but the set of actions coordinated from his equipment, oriented to the strategic conquest of overcoming his deficiencies. Because of these benefits, immune systems of this type can be likened to a ‚Äúbodyguard‚ÄĚ or a troop responsible for defending its borders. In this way, the concept of Techn√© points to the ability, competence, training and skill achieved by men to build a second nature. Adopting Sloterdijk‚Äôs position in the opposite direction of Gehlen, Ortega y Gasset came to an interesting conclusion. ‚ÄúMan is an animal for which only the superfluous is necessary.‚ÄĚ For him, thanks to his technical gift, man makes him always around what he needs, then creates a new, more favorable circumstance, segregates, so to speak, a nature that adapts nature to his needs. And so he maintained a fundamental thesis to reflect on technology: the technique is the opposite of the adaptation of the subject to the environment, since it is the adaptation of the environment to the subject. That would be enough to make us suspect that it is a movement in the opposite direction of all biological factors, or almost all of them better saying.

In this sense, Ortega y Gasset (1963, pp. 7-8):

Man has no commitment to be in the world. In what has commitment is to be well. Only this seems necessary to him and everything else is necessity only to the extent that it makes possible the well-being. Therefore, for man only the objectively superfluous is necessary. This will be considered paradoxical, but it is the true truth. Biologically objective needs are not, per se, necessities for him. When it is stuck to them it refuses to satisfy them and prefers to succumb. They only become necessities when they appear as conditions of "being in the world", which in turn is only necessary in a subjective way; namely, because it makes possible the "well-being in the world" and the superfluity. Hence it follows that even what is objectively necessary is only for man when it is referred to superfluity. There is no doubt: man is an animal for which only the superfluous is necessary. Apparently it will seem to you a little strange and worthless than a phrase, but if you reconsider the question you will see how by themselves you inevitably come to it. And this is essential to understanding the technique. The technique is the production of the superfluous: today and in the Paleolithic era. It is certainly the means to meet human needs. Now we can accept this formula that we repelled yesterday because now we know that human needs are objectively superfluous and that they only become necessities for those who need well-being and for those who live it is essentially to live well. This is why the animal is technical: it is content with living and with the objectively necessary for simple existence. From the point of view of simple existence the animal is unsurpassed and does not need the technique. But man is man because for him to exist means immediately and always well-being; so it is the technical nativity creator of the superfluous. Man, technique, and well-being are ultimately synonymous. Another thing is to ignore the tremendous sense of technique: its significance as an absolute fact in the universe. If the technique consisted only in one of its parts-in solving more comfortably the same necessities that integrate the life of the animal and in the same sense that they may be for it-we would have a strange intermingle in the universe: we would have two systems of acts - instincts of the animal and the technicians of man - who, being so heterogeneous, would nonetheless serve the same purpose: to sustain in the world organic being. Because the case is that the animal fits perfectly with its system, that is, that it is not a defective system, in principle. It is neither more nor less defective than that of man. Everything is clarified, on the contrary, if it is noticed that the purposes are different: on the one hand, to serve the organic life, which is adaptation of the subject to the environment, simple being in nature. On the other, to serve the good life, to the well-being, that implies adaptation of means to the will of the subject. Let us therefore note that human needs are only due to well-being. We can then only ascertain what those are if we find out what it is that man understands by his well-being. And this complicates things formidably. Because … you will know everything that man understood, understood or understood for well-being, for need of necessities, for the only necessary thing that Jesus spoke to Martha and Mary (Mary, the true technique for Jesus). For Pompey it was not necessary to live, but it was necessary to navigate, renewing the motto of the milieia society of the aeinautai - the eternal navigators - to whom Tales belonged, creators of a new daring commerce, a new bold policy, the Western science. There is the fakir, the ascetic, on one side; the sensual, the glutton, on the other.

At this point the reason for his later disagreement with Heidegger is explained. To live every man does many things, however, to live well it is necessary to adapt the environment to the will of the subject. As he realizes in the world, man discovers that this is an intricate network around him. It is enough that the profile of well-being which is sketched out before the man changes substantially a little, that the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčlife, from which and for which man does everything that he does, undergoes a mutation of some magnitude. So that the traditional technique will shatter, disintegrate and take other directions. Technique is the concretization of the process of fabrication of human life. She is not something out. It will engender and carry out the task that is life. Although Ortega y Gasset says that "to the technical act, but that effort to save effort is what inspires the technique", by the readings made here on Sloterdijk the effort of itself will culminate in self-overcoming (with the vertical tensions already mentioned). In this way, the technique does not aim to save effort, but the technique is a product of the effort. Of the repetition of man by man. From the effort to go further.

During this period the antigravity policy had given way, in the form of republicanism, air navigation, aesthetics and therapy, industries and traffic from great distances were latent in creating their own means and machines. So, who does not want to speak of this upward impulse, one must shut up before Modernity. Nietzsche himself had declared to his friends "free thinkers" or "free thinkers" of life as aeronauts of the spirit. For Hegel, the romantic attack is that the slight has consolidated itself. He already believed that processes of reviewing the weights and measures of the former serious consideration should be put in place. The modern way of experiencing boredom emancipates itself as a phenomenon of its own. The inner time gets rid of in such a way that a loose and liberated competition of purpose appears, in positive sense without work that advanced of the whim before returning to him. The floating spirit that judges only for itself and with the element of the world sees only an "insubstantiality" that takes its hands. It is when lack of seriousness, pain, the other, dialectics, work, patience and negativity. An active restlessness that is the self that as its counterpoint, circular movement and labor and laborious production know where it goes. One drifting aimlessly towards Hegel would be one cannot follow his own line. The experimentation of some weight began to be called into question. The self-conscious lightness was only possible in the face of a horizon of a "society" that thanks to the well-being, science and technique left the field of hard and heavy work of effort. In this being on the air, we have nothing but the end of the force of gravity. The beginning of a subjectivity to "serious" world definitions, with the beginning of the lightness and free time (monotony) of the substance. Freedom understood as weight-bearing and light-weight forces. The metaphor of the Spheres here marries pluralistic spherology. A climatological interpretation allows a polyvalent reality with the animations of the bubble-space-vital cells as a means of antigravity tendencies. "From this point of view Modernity appears as an experiment of expansive and transcultural levitation: with the emphasis placed on the foaming of the real, thanks to the introduction of moments of upward momentum in the complex of gravity" (SLOTERDIJK, 2006, p. 546). We must now assume that the notion of "society" and foams has a tendency towards antigravity, understood as immunization against paralyzing gravity. A time of techniques of immunization, of dismissal and reoneration before turning to lightness, accompanied by a civilizing sense of anti-stress moments. Bearing in mind the spherology and its foaming, we must mention that the whole of the modernized social field is a multicameral system composed of upward-moving cells, the "worlds of life", where the symbionts enjoy antigrativational effects by virtue of the means of accessible lightness for them. A mosaic of co-comfort, co-frivolity, co-isolation, co-hysteria as symbiotic space. In addition, as previously mentioned foams have a strong tendency towards mimetic infestations, paranoid epidemics and media.

Climatic conditions that its content as a pole of constitution should rotate between lightness and comfort. Heidegger was not carried away by this vision of lightness. No matter how contemporary his theses are, especially on the discharging flows into the climatic domestic economy of the modern being-in-the-world, he by habit and perhaps flirting with the vision of Old Europe along with the situation of Germany at the time, he preferred to let himself take a hard, heavy, and tiring weight. A protagonist of realism and old European heroism. Spengler would articulate in the sense of an era of a chosen or chosen effort. What presents itself as a work of superabundance that was put in a serious way. Somewhat like Ortega y Gasset when he speaks of two salient features of every technique, one that diminishes, sometimes almost eliminates, the effort imposed by the circumstance and that succeeds in reforming it, reacting against it and forcing it to adopt new forms which they favor man. This very important information of an ontological shift between the slight and the heavy comes from a disposition to the neo-athletic character of the effort. For the ordinary seen as a not serious effort. We would have an increasing endogenous hunger. Individuals want to feel busy, entertained, but they with their gravitational release still tend to deny their farewell of need and weight. That‚Äôs why sports, consumption, in entrepreneurship, social activism come as a junction of work and play. A world that has lost its seriousness and therefore seems to lose reality. Not surprisingly a number of new psycho-political phenomena in front of this ontology of lightness would be seen. Disordes, diseases and the various ‚Äúmalaises‚ÄĚ, among them the depression as the ‚Äúdisease of the twentieth century‚ÄĚ. States of mind fragmented, insignificant, meaningless existences and the will to have what to do. The human being has an authentic need to be forced by excessive demands-demands. The high-performance sport and the high philosophies of the twentieth century have in common that we can only make sense of both when we understand levitation. Deliberate effort as records and competitions as the singular option for commitments and tasks bear witness to how liberated life is concerned with the reversal of its surplus sense. When there is a void of need, individuals choose tasks and directions ahead of themselves. Effort sets in the direction of the superfluous.

The existence of the unlearned and unarmed allows for the lack of negativity, time and critical internal judgment. The subject feels exposed to a discharge of banality. His lack of weight leads him to consider indifference to himself. Since nothing he deals with and undertakes can be something really ‚Äúreal‚ÄĚ. Life in the face of lightness is boring. The moment or the lapse of time means the subject experiences his own time as an interior dilation. A step forward for some mission and if in case of success, it will break the deadlock. We dedicate ourselves as an artificial enthusiasm of action where a loser syndrome leads us to nothing. The burden of relief on a pain in the absence of pain. A negative atlas. Non-existent existence has to bear on your shoulders the total absence of weight. For what time if we no longer have nor feel history anymore? The designs of Gehlen and Heidegger can be seen with the denial of the condition of antigravity and modern living conditions in the ‚Äúconsumer society‚ÄĚ with constructivism and functionalism after World War II. A new paradigm of thought showed that it may be better perceived in the age of levitation. The ontological condition of lightness makes the weight of things and decisions miss. The weight of things and decisions are built in dealing with themselves. The human being struggled with his pre-decisions daily and in everything he did, now the constructivist twist that would be gravity and lightness is nothing more than an equilibrating or non-balancing effect of checks and balances. A summary of ‚Äúconstructivist morality‚ÄĚ would be to demand the elective decisions in all visibility of freedom. It is when lightness becomes a thematic fact that they can describe spaces of coexistence animated according to aspects of gravitation. With the establishment of air and atmospheric as a category in the Spheres, considered as ontological and public dimensions, all human facts appear as a kind of discharge. The antigravitational is a vector to the heavens of not heavy sense. The upward impulse penetrates the interior of the anthropogenic islands, where we no longer have beings of want, but beings of wealth, mime, luxury, children‚Äôs privileges, among others. A certain modern tendency of a lack of appreciation of oneself.

In this context, the substitution of self-preservation for the intensification of self appears. In this context, the substitution of self-preservation for the intensification of self appears. But in the current situation the will to self-intensification has cut off the self-preserving vein, which is why a kind of right to self-extinguishment is demanded in return. The typical individual of the western middle classes is an experimenter. It feels empty and seeks continuous experimentation and self-intensification, and the process of the world emerges in order to have more parts in common with a large-scale ‚Äúsuicide party‚ÄĚ (kamikazes) than with an organization of rational beings aimed at self-preservation. It is important to note the work Thus Spoke Zarathustra in which Nietzsche speaks of the ‚Äúlast man‚ÄĚ. The development of the modern world enriched the last man in the individualism of the industrial age as an inventor of happiness with his satiating desires. But more than that the ‚Äúlast man‚ÄĚ is a man of no return. He is a man who does not go through a process of man‚Äôs repetition by man as insularization. They are individuals living in individualism where their generation process is as new as last. A no returns. The individual individualized to the limit wants a self-rewarding experience; it takes your life as the ultimate consumer of yourself and your chances. This opens up a perspective for thinking about new worlds and new generations. Descendants do not mean more repetition or self-repetition of life forms in new generations, but reproduction when it escapes, opens an abyss for unpredictability in the form of children who will be new people in new worlds. A society of the new and the latter as perspective for a formless content and a form without substance. So Sloterdijk says that hyperpolitics, whatever it may be, is the first policy for the last men. A society as a community with the challenge of in the future to bet on the improvement of the world and to learn a means of transforming its gains in such a way that there may still be some winner after it. If we take this as truth we will see that Sloterdijk puts in Spheres some images about Salvador Dal√≠. A deeper interpretation will tell us that the first experimenters were the Surrealists. It is evident, says Sloterdijk, that in the world today there is an imaginary imperative that says that whoever behaves always in a rational and self-protective way will deprive himself of a good part of the good things that have long belonged naturally to our experimental habits, this worship of speed without limits, this absolute tendency to intensify in all things to lightness. It is the individual who claims privileged access to himself as the possessor of experiences. Hence the mission of the final consumption of oneself. A constant ecstasy forms the man as an experimenter of perfume to be yourself and feel yourself, whether in sex with orgasm (a little death), extreme sports, the ecstasy of breathing for the first time, chocolate, fitness movements, drugs, mystical experiences, mediums, pornography, alternative medicine, adventures, travel and the conquest of the air by man. In this, the individuality of the designer man works even more. Awareness of individuality is real individualism. He is the one who self-experiments, self-builds or tries to self-train. This combines well with the single life style and with the growing movement of helpers, opinion formers, speakers, entrepreneurs, cookery programs, consultants, consultants, experts, coaches, pills in the pills, contraceptives, coaching, personal trainers, youtubers, sex shops (the apartment is a miniature erotope) and self-help. All of them guide you in a contemporary subjectivity that is no longer filled and in a ‚Äúsociety of lightness‚ÄĚ that tends to seek oneself, to find oneself, to build oneself, to experience oneself and to be oneself. And there goes things from mirrors, brands, products, smarthphones, food, tasters, photographs, media. A dopamine addiction and pleasure in self-experimentation. Endorphins, par excellence. Rapture Beings. Exist and consume.

REFERENCES:

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas III: Espumas ( Esferología Plural ). Tradução de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, pp. 476-477.

______ . Espumas ( Esferología Plural ). Tradução de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, pp. 502-503.

Ortega y Gasset. Meditation Technique . Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, pp. 7-8.

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas III: Espumas ( Esferología Plural ). Tradução de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, p. 546.


(Eduardo Rocha) #26

FIGURES:

CrossFit Games Event
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CrossFit athletes. Today we see a new type of capitalism and neoindividualism. He is kind of coming back to himself and intensifying himself tied to performance at all (giving the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčan I-designer). Do not consume more products, but brands. Hygienic "products", drinks, food, mirrors, notebooks, interface end up intensifying oneself, since in some ways the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčthe other no longer exists. You now talk to yourself through media, which also makes us believe that the idea of ‚Äč‚Äčtransvestite is very much present in pop culture, in the imaginative ideals of women and even of men. Many will speak of the end of masculinity or a great feminization of men, but this is only a consumerist and psycho-political movement of a new contemporary age. Therefore, the love life, following this path, may also believe that it must dispense with the Other. The fan is opened for a somewhat narcissistic quest, where it is preferable to find only himself. Masturbatory sex reigns along with same-sex sexual activity, so to speak. The quest for a singular partner, one effectively another, no longer attracts. In this sense, homosexuality tends to be a first choice. It is much easier for girls to explain themselves to girls, and by the way, women are years in the light of men in that. Homosexuality has grown for a fashionable reason, and not just for one reason of liberal openness to sexual tastes.
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New Babylon. A situationist and utopian city, designed around the abolition of labor. It was intended as an advertisement that criticized conventional, bourgeois and utilitarian society. The idea was to create an anti-capitalist society of total automation. Work was replaced by nomadic life, creative play, and experimental architecture. Its structure was a network of megastructures floating above ground, interconnected with bridges and paths where post-capitalist inhabitants could wander in search of a new and free kind of life. Constant has always seen the project as a concrete and feasible proposal for a future city.
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Eurostars Madrid Tower.
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Bahrain Durrat Al Bahrain Apartment or Flat variety of residential option-waterpark - Durrat Marina, upcoming 2018.
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Structures without force. Figure 146, 530 x 575 x 340 cm (raised gallery). View of the installation. Statens Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen. (2001).
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The Balloon Dog. Jeff Koons.
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(Marco V Morelli) #27

Thanks for all these notes, @Eduardo_Rocha. You have been tempting me to go back and finish Foams. I still may have to wait until next year, but I will come back to your notes whenever I do. Thanks for sharing your insights.


(Eduardo Rocha) #28

I found this book very attractive. The final part speaks volumes about our current society. I believe that this third book was written probably around 2001-2005 is very current.
Another interesting news is that a friend tagged me on facebook and it seems that a philosopher here in Brazil linked to the research activity will do some event or a lecture on ‚ÄúIntercultural Dialogues from Sloterdijk and Wittgenstein‚ÄĚ along with Carla Carmona Escalera, philosopher and professor at the University of Sevila (Spain). I think she translated or wrote some text along with Sloterdijk on voluntary taxation and citizen responsibility. The event is in S√£o Paulo ECA-USP on 08.31.2018. I will be careful if it will be recorded or if some text will be worked to share.