Peter Sloterdijk on Foams


(Eduardo Rocha) #21

Figures:

image
Adaptation of the human hand.

image
The Phonograph is a device invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.

image
Essay for the grand parade is held at Red Square in Moscow. (2018).

image
Mummification.

image
Commercial ports in the State of New Jersey - USA.

image
Superabundant atmosphere. Jacob Hashimoto.

image
The Amazon company opened a transparent biodome created to house a tropical rainforest in Seattle called "the spheres."

image
Nagakin Capsule Tower. Kisho Kurokawa. (1972).

References:

SLOTERDIJK, Peter. Esferas III: Espumas (Esferología Plural) . Traducción de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2006, p. 275.

______. Esferas II: Globos (Macroesferología) . Traducción de Isidoro Reguera. Madrid: Siruela, 2004, pp. 173-218.

ORTEGA Y GASSET, José. Meditação da Técnica ( Meditation of the technique ). Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, p. 16.

______. Meditação da Técnica (Meditation of the technique) . Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, pp. 7-8.

ORTEGA Y GASSET, José. Meditações Sobre a Técnica (Meditations on the technique) . Lisboa: Sociedade Unipessoal, 2009, pp. 47-49.

ORTEGA Y GASSET, José. Meditação da Técnica (Meditation of the technique) . Rio de Janeiro: Livro Ibero-Americano, 1963, pp. 11-12.


(Eduardo Rocha) #22

Continuing … Chapter 2: Inside the Home - Foam Architecture

A - From modern architecture to resort explanation

1 - Or be gathered; stopping place and warehouse

2 - Receivers and housing facilities

3 - Submersion and immersion

4 - Houses as immunity systems

5 - The machine to inhabit or the self-mobilized space

6 - Management of directions, location of consumption and regulation of climate

  • Pages (383-427).

Sloterdijk changes his speech quite a bit in these next chapters. Briefly resume the end of the past. He speaks of those who are contoured by the human islands, observes that its group of inhabitants is submitted to local tensions of rules. There is a "normative climate" of a group that is related to its stability, a supervenience of the future. As we have seen in Spheres II - Globes, any idea of ​​center has remained flawed, be it geocentrism or theocentrism and other cosmologies. As we have seen from the point of view of the history of ideas, the duplication of geocentric totality and theocentric totality is not a phenomenon peculiar to Catholic-Christian metaphysics, but a necessary consequence of the fundamental spherical decision of Greek classicism. After Copernicus and Bruno, the universe had to be rebuilt with good reasons and that it could no longer offer the inhabitants of the land the old security of the covers. The modern age and modernity can be unequivocally characterized by a radical structuring of immunity relations. We would have to think of a radical restructuring of immunity relations. To see the peculiar new situation that the new cosmopolitan theorists Copernicus and Bruno overturned the planetary covers and the firmament, they made the earth eccentric and knocked it down to a cosmic instability for which no inhabitant of it was prepared. According to this analysis it had been emphasized that infinite theology is the fundamental source of nihilism. It is responsible for the equivalence between being-there and insecurity. It is the initial denial of all human demands for immunity. Nietzsche in speaking of the morality of customs made moral criticisms and the result of his analysis is that the morality of customs has the ability to order without the possibility of replica or dialectic. The sense of the traditional demands of mastery of oneself consists in letting custom and tradition dominate for themselves, a custom dictatorship. That which dominates without conditions is worth as an absolute end, as the good, as the just. The goddess who holds the blindfold in her eyes and the scales in her hand. In its name shines the damage in favor of the legitimate power of forms, procedures, processes and customs in general. A formalism that structures the Roman judicial process that possesses auras of good inspired invoices or the singing ceremony of the American anthem at major sporting events. Both in one and in another and in any similar is the donor authority of the bottom of the social syntax. Systemic stability. A calm in the hurry. This ability to maintain structures is among the primary tasks of any social and unitary configuration ever seen. In the context of Spherology we must speak of "moral statics", since one is proper theory for the human islands must have the possibility of its consolidation by internal normative tensions.

Following this logic of forms or rather from the perspective that one can gain their moral analogies, the "societies", both the primitive and the more developed are tensegrity of expectations. It is the same as saying: multiplicities of housing constraints and regulated actions that are consolidated through intimidation and threats. The expectations of normalized groups do not show any pressure character, but rather by a performance by "pull" (drag, attraction, flip). It is so true that the layer of ambition and self-esteem, including the mimetic temptation, can be attributed to this mode of force transmission. It is only in the face of the manifested threat that pressure analogues come into play that are therefore reserved for a state of exception. The culture for Sloterdijk functions as a principle in not letting free of tensions that create the traction effort by which the members of the group attach themselves to regularities of the group. Things such as law enforcement and customs exert a permanent stress or self-stressing stimulus on the limbs and place them in a sort of symbolic vibration that gives them an endogenously stabilized body temperature of a living being that is full of hot, boiling blood. Because groups always project something, whether they are works or parties, wars or elections, and they continually feel provoked by something, whether natural disasters, enemy actions, crimes or scandals, they constantly subvert the thematic material they use to agree on their or better about your immunization situation or your state of stress. With the help of their current themes, the group measures itself to fever. By his fever he recovers his operative unit as a context of provocation, endogenously closed. The repression of the normative stressors to the subliminal one takes place because the group incrusts (it incorporates) in routine his expectations of action. The routine becomes a form of "expected effort." A receptacle emptied on the inside filled with repetition, and therefore even imperceptible. Arnold Gehlen, who produced works in this sense to demonstrate the importance of normalized expectations of effort, understood as a concept of institutions, which for him would be nothing more than a permanent commitment reached between charges and discharges. Institutions would be a prototype of stabilized force or tension. This concept of institution is as an appeal in favor of keeping unconscious the order in which a conception of the unconscious directed to the latent rather than the repressed comes into play. Here comes the importance of what is called rule because it is the objectivity of the rule that frees both individuals and groups from the misery of formlessness and the same way from the requirement of constant originality. Another side of the nomotopo becomes visible and is the opposite of what in the twentieth century took a lot of space in sociological theories. The visible side has a side contrary to the propensity to conceal power and dominance in routines. As a self-impressive and self-intimidating magnitude, the group acquires an inflation by norms and lives on a performative force of rituals, customs, and its impulse of manifestation. The impulse would become the politics so present among the moderns. With all the antropotecnics described and explained, on the islands the air becomes free. With the emergence of the anthropogenic islands (anthropospheres), we see savannas where they spit out self-marking units that acquire ontological meaning based on greenhouses of human beings. For these greenhouses, human beings are attracted who acquire a tendency towards a world opening. They are the ones that stopped being hominids. From their cultivated and planted bodies flourish brains and hands of what we call sapiens. The place of human beings must be an imagination and an implant of a world of life where anthropology-topology is present as a biosphere in which human and non-human companions coexist. The sapiens emerge from their own environment is that because they believe in an inner world for which they make it a company. Entertainment, magic, symbols, work, signs, ecstasy, comfort, status, tasks, tensions, sounds are in the surroundings like themselves. A free or ecstatic intelligence arises. Anthropic ecstasy is the detachment or repression of animal constriction. Human being now means the innate inability to remain an animal. The domestication of being is the emergent.

What we call "society" is understandable by the nine dimensions we have already spoken about and which constitutes a field of places with tensions of unequal explanations. A place with multiplicities of spaces or foams. Every individual cell in the foam should be understood as a micro insulation that carries in itself the model of antropotecnics. For in every individual formation you must now add the divergent tensional within multidimensionality. Like cell or cells in foams everywhere, every wall, every resonance group, constitutes a miniature of the whole. Every cell or every consortium of cells (cultures) are clustered together in a floating multiplicity of unilateral and reciprocal imitations of crosses, mimicry, and mixture in which it is not possible to identify a fundamental and panoramic homogenous form. What Heidegger in Being and Time had spoken of technique and which we see here as the chirotope (the world at hand) shows that the cause of its familiarity is the fundamental feature of openness. Sloterdijk speaks of modifications produced during the twentieth century of being in the foam as architectural, esthetic, legal implantation. Existence as a resort. Understanding resort by residence or stay or delay in one place. To inhabit is something inseparable from humans. In the Modern era as Benjamin had already spoken of the house as an added element the nature and enabling of human beings. A situation of being in space and the creation of space as a means of artificial existence as change and political consequences of traffic in the era of air and air dominance. Of course, as we have already said Sloterdijk uses this conquest of air as a phenomenon of explanation of the air space by the terror of the gas (atmoterrorists), air weapons, air conditioning, etc. Air sovereignty as a conquest of the third dimension.
Sloterdijk (2006, p. 384):

The authentic "revolution of space" of the twentieth century is the explanation of human permanence or backwardness in an interior by the machine to be inhabited, the design of the climate, the planning of the environment (even the great forms, which we call collectors), as well as the exploitation of the neighborhood with inhuman spatial structures, preponderant and associated with the human, the cosmic (macro and micro) and the virtual. In fact, in order to make the permanence of people in inhabited places explicable, nothing less than a reversal of the relation between the foreground and the background as to the conditions of human accommodation was necessary.

We must project our houses into the void and formulate a future as if they were close relatives like the space capsules. The architecture of Modernity is the medium in which the explanation of the human resort in the interiors constructed by the human being is articulated procedurally. Architecture consubstantiates itself in the location of being-there. A place where it is possible to live, to stay and to be with oneself with self-reference, money, interconnection and mobility. Sloterdijk continues and gives us clues about what he is doing. The world or these places can only now be thought of as the here and there as a "world life".

Sloterdijk says that a place is (2006, p. 385):

A portion of enclosed and conditioned air, a transmitted and upgraded atmosphere site, a node of host relationships, a crossroads in a network of data flows, a direction for business initiatives, a niche for self-relationships, a base camp for expeditions to the work environment and experiences, a business location, a regenerative zone, a subjective night guarantor. The further the explanation goes, the more it seems to be the building of houses, the installation of space stations. The very habitation and the production of its receptacles becomes an orthography of all the dimensions or components that were mounted on the anthropogenic island, growing together originally; in it, the decomposition of completely agglutinated living conditions and their rational remodeling, can take up to a limit value of the repetition of the human world island, in general, in an apartment for single inhabitant.

With all an infinite mobilization, especially in the Modern era as the traffic of people, the goods have been creating all the conditions of design and innovative perceptions of what refers to the way of inhabiting the human. The reactions of the Industrial Revolution created an open path for work-labor, where there is an overrun of the agrarian way for multifocal, multilocal and almost nomadic conditions of life. Only this form of tele mobility and light mobility is what enabled technical transporter and existential architectures to inhabit, a light in the stationary sedentarism. Now the concept of skepticism can be positivized in front of all the adherents to the soil, especially the idea of ​​nation already only adored by the conservatives. With that in mind, the traditional dwelling as a homeland nation does not represent a form of universally valid figure of the lingering in a place. This delay is something surmountable by the stanza in a place of humans as those who retain something. Man’s place is a container-housing. From places of rest, means of transportation with departure and arrival times, air-conditioned waiting places to our homes are places of stop.

Being in an accommodation is also being in comfort. With a wait comes the moment when you can no longer be contaminated by the illness of waiting. The instant the planted fruits are ready to consume, store, and replant. The houses are waiting rooms at places to stop. Houses are places of stay for a life retained and offer a place the irruption of time in space. They are vials or domes that refers to the permanence of the human being in lodgings. An interesting perspective appears. The retained or housed life presents itself as a hope of change of mood by new offers of movement. Dwell has a new outfit, means now, being away from the outside or cannot go outside. If that is true, then, to dwell is to be in, to be housed, and if it is so for humans, it means to dwell anywhere else.

Modernity was master’s in designing and creating a "receptive waiting" for signals in technical devices such as radio sets and telephones, whose existence allows the conclusion that human houses are always receiving missive stations from the unusual. The way of inhabiting human beings consists of a trivial installation in which alone it allows to differentiate the nontrivial. An ability to structure life by customs to undertake something. If humans are locked in their rooms it is because they are wanting or trying to seek escape from triviality. This universal scenario leads to the modern way of life, especially the apartment, where sitting there, in the same goes along with a kind of waiting signal for someone to call. A domestic life is endowed with an extremely poor stimulus charge. In a certain period of life this gave rise to a whole specialization of construction and architectures, be they cathedrals, places of stops, stations, etc. All these places compel heaven to accept humans as passengers. In the literature one sees innumerable cases of hospitality that was very well codified by the religious cultures and they concern the possibility of receiving a stranger or a guest in his own house like a place of stop. And in this we see once more the figure of Jesus. Was there not a time when a newcomer had become a universal savior or an announced savior? It was a messenger sign of divinity. In another sense we must explain that houses work in a context other than mere receivers.


(Eduardo Rocha) #23

Here Sloterdijk intelligently speaks in a certain way of culture and how houses become ontological therapeutic stations of ecstatic beings, precisely because they may suffer from immunodeficiency and can become ill from lack of meaning. A sieve not to fall into the abyss of nihilism, filters before the senseless, sanatoriums to treat disorders of what is significant. This in a way contributed to some hermeneutics of “homelessness.” A spatial disorientation. Heidegger believed that this lack of homeland is in fact a sign of the modern age or a symptom of modern man, for he cannot perceive this without also regretting. Vilém Flusser philosophized as a true Jewish immigrant when choosing to demystify the homeland or the country soil. An aggressive view of existence and lack of homeland. If a homeland is considered a place where permanence becomes relative, a type of housing changeable, transferable. One can travel the globe, one can travel from one country to another, or have none, but one must live somewhere, no matter where. Parisian clochards live under bridges. Another case that came to mind is the gypsies. Sloterdijk is speaking of the ironic reason, to be sure, to show that its distance from the distinctions between real and non-real in philosophy are part of the lightness symptom of our time. This lightness that Sloterdijk thematizes is unbearable. It is vertical vector of so light it is. Reality is admitted as temporary fiction, only to avoid the less painful path when we pass from one belief to another (to go from belief A to B we admit that they are going from the real to the real or something like that), then we are already encumbering this the contemporaneousness that is its lightness. There arises the “unsustainable lightness of being”. The world seems to lose reality by losing its seriousness, so non-serious practices are made serious, the need that vanishes before freedom is reintroduced to bel pleasure as what “would be necessary.” Subjectivity then reappears as a pole with some contour, but now dominated, on the one hand, by freedom that is no longer possible to be defined as “the consciousness of necessity,” as Hegel and Marx taught, but the possibility of deciding what necessity to invent. The subject, in this effort, does not cease to have a strange autonomy. It is an autonomy that gives you the ability to choose who will deceive you. However, all this is possible, yes, because in the limit this reason of not having reason was only posed as possible since, in its lightness, it also needs to be serious, and this because of an Other that has become different. The other is the gypsy. It’s not the other one from my neighborhood. It is not the other as was the Arab for the European, in the Arab invasions, in the Crusades. It is another that becomes involved and becomes close. It is the other that wanders through Europe. If some of them, the refugees, are seen as terrorists, this is not so different from being seen as a gypsy. It is not an invading army that wanders Europe. These are people who wander. They are the ones who can wander and “hit the leg”. They are those who may have no domicile. It’s the new gypsies. They make reason and philosophy really create self-criticism to the point of maximum irony. There is no reason to be right in talking to the new campers of gypsies, refugees and immigrants, who want to wander around Europe. So, the current reason is and remains critical for being ironic. If Sloterdijk spoke about a turnaround of the world’s reversion to lightness, a topological shift on ecology and cosmonautics, we must stick to a reversal of housing. Taken as dwelling there cannot have the sense of homeland function. Being-in the motherland is understood as a side effect of dwelling. The house appears as a generator of redundancy or as a habit machine with the task of dividing into familiar or unfamiliar masses the signals that arrive “from the world” that present a significant or important icon. In this way, house-dwelling is an agency that must determine usable signs. We come in a dynamic of house-dwelling as a space immunity system. This explanation transcends the walls and walls that we look at in waiting rooms, as generators of habits and emergent situation. From the immunological point of view, dwelling is a measure of defense by which a sphere of wellbeing is defined in front of invaders and other sufferers of malaise. All immunity systems claim a right to defense against disorders that need no justification. Most often the description of immunity systems is made by visions of social facts that could fall into such things as social coherence in automated cooperation in an immune commune. In “societies,” the systems of immunity were the family, the tribe, the city, the community of faith, the people, the party, cooperatives, business, etc.

All of them are unit-entities that want to make themselves as an operationally effective immunological unit and that dictate to their members modes of behavior, rules of coexistence, statutes, laws, to serve as a banner of a common immunity. The Modern model of dwelling consists in that it addresses above all the needs of isolation and relation of flexibilization individuals and their companions of life, who no longer seek or seek their immune optimization in imaginary and real collectives or in cosmic totalities as we have seen in Spheres II - Globes, ideas like home, people, class and state. Whoever leaves what is called a community of immunity and solidarity is considered a traitor. We see in these classifications the clear sense of what immunitas means. Non-cooperation in higher community work. So, could all of modern society be regarded as traitors? The houses of this time are living proofs of a civilizing project that puts in order a new formation of units of immunity and spaces of integration. If the houses are spaces of the individual how to think then the connection of immunity and community? The single life intensifies even more in the contemporary period. Just as in the era of "naked life," existence means the stage of success of a one-man place. The right of the master of the house configures the latent ideal of all immunity, he is the one who decides, the gifted of decision-making power for the admission or non-admission of a stranger in his own space. Immunity is taken as a provisional force against a vulnerable force, for it internalizes before protecting. The right of space, the heart of private law, protects the associated life as a set of activities constituted one in the other and of several lives, that by the fact of consuming acquire the possibility to develop by themselves. Nothing but self-limits and to the exclusion of the other.

I find the Foams very interesting, especially the initial part and the current almost half of the book to the end. The part of the islands is theoretically very good, but the descriptions of the two or three topoi are very interesting, the others seem subdivisions of the main ones. So far, everything sounds very convincing and reminds me that Sloterdijk does not just do philosophical work, this chapter talks a lot about environments, buildings, artists, architects and some other philosophers. It seems that he is almost omnipresent in the works of others, speaks with enough propriety pointing to their mistakes. This design of the Spheres seems to have taken up quite a bit of time from it and seems to me meticulously created. It is difficult to try to find some hole, mistake or anything that distorts what he has done here. I realized that Foams have a certain tone to describe climates, environments, air, machines, and dwellings. Which leaves us questions like: If there was a climatic catastrophe with our atmospheric conditions and the planet where we would live? How would we produce oxygen artificially? How would we generate energy to inhabit the inside? What materials would we use? And the ventilation, control temperature, water, energy, communication, electricity, fence? Will not we do the same in space? What climate policy should we think for the future? And with the oil reserves we will one day be without them?
image
Rochers de Naye. Switzerland.

image
Three US pilots in front of Dymaxion Deployment Unites deployment units, North Africa (1944).

image
U-town. Steven Brower. (1998).

image
Marina City. Chicago.


Thunderdome. Mad Max

image
Boy uses grid like net.

image
The Necklace Dome. Buckminster Fuller. (1950).